The 2 main branches of Chemistry are Organic and Inorganic chemistry. The difference between an organic and an inorganic compound is that organic compounds have a Carbon in its chemical
structure, while inorganic compounds usually do not have this element.
Organic Chemistry studies the structure, properties, composition, and reactions of compounds that contain carbon. These molecules are related to substances produces by living organisms, but it also includes human-made substances such as plastics. Some examples are: Nucleic Acids, Fats, sugars, proteins, enzymes, and hydrocarbon fuels. The application of organic compounds is huge, includes: pharmaceuticals, petrochemicals, food, explosives, paints and cosmetics. Organic compounds are common in our daily life, they include rubber, plastics (today almost everything can be made out of plastic, from cars to prosthesis), cosmetics, textiles and detergent.
Inorganic chemistry studies the synthesis and behavior of the inorganic compounds, which do not have C-H bond. Inorganic compounds include salts, metals and substances made from only one element. Inorganic compounds are found in nature as minerals, but also man-made substances are inorganic, such as fertilizers. It has applications in: Materials science, pigments, surfactants, coatings, medications, fuels and agriculture. Inorganic compounds are used to create things we use daily. For example Ammonia is involved in the creation of plastics, fibers and nylons, as well as in the creation of adhesives. Another example is Chlorine which is used in the manufacture of furniture, fertilizers, pharmaceuticals and insecticide.
Organic compounds have covalent bonds; they may be solids, liquids or gases with lower melting points (less than 360Cº). Most of them are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents such as diethyl, ether and toluene. Almost all of them are flammable and have slow reactions. Inorganic compounds on the other hand, have ionic bonds, most of them are solids with high melting points. Many of them are soluble in water but insoluble in organic solvents. Few inorganic compounds are flammable and reactions are usually fast.
Organic and inorganic compounds are opposites, but in many industries, they work together to create different products.