All Bacteria have the following characteristics:

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  • Unicellular and stick together in colonies
  • Are prokaryotic (no nucleus, vacuoles, mitochondria or chloroplasts)
  • They have a single chromosome in a DNA loop
  • They reproduce asexually by binary fission
  • Live in moist environment and are inactive in dry environments

Two groups of Bacteria

1.  Archaebacteria – primitive bacteria that live in harsh environments

2.  Eubacteria – most common bacteria eg: E. Coli

Other ways of classifying bacteria are:

3.  Aerobic or anaerobic

4.  Autotroph or heterotroph

Bacteria Reproduction:

BINARY FISSION

–      similar to mitosis (simple cell division)

STEPS:

  1. DNA replicates (doubles)
  2. a cross wall forms dividing the cell into two identical bacteria

Some bacteria (eg: E.Coli and Salmonella) reproduce by conjugation (sexual reproduction)

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The Nitrogen Cycle
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