Is a hypothesis that has been proven false but is still accepted by many people because it appears, at first glance, to make sense.

The Fallacy of Composition

A mistaken belief that what is good for the individual is automatically good for society as a whole.

  • Eg: Clearing the trees from Crown land will be profitable for a forestry company and therefore beneficial for all Canadians
  • Eg: Taking a Co-op class worked wonders for Marco when he was in high school. Therefore all students should take Co-op in high school.

The Post Hoc Fallacy

The mistaken belief that, because it took place after event A, event B must have been caused by event A. “After this therefore because of this.”

  • Eg: On a farm, the sun rises a few minutes after the rooster crows. Therefore, the rooster’s crow must cause the sun to rise.
  • Eg: This fallacy is often apparent when a newly elected government takes credit for improving the economy. Since the economy improved after the election, the election result must have been responsible.

The Fallacy of Single Causation

A fallacy of over-simplification. Based on a false premise that a single factor or person caused a particular event to occur.

  • Eg: The stock market crash of 1929 led to the Great Depression of the 1930s.
  • Eg: Gavrillo Princip started World War One when he shot the Archduke Franz Ferdinand.
author avatar
William Anderson (Schoolworkhelper Editorial Team)
William completed his Bachelor of Science and Master of Arts in 2013. He current serves as a lecturer, tutor and freelance writer. In his spare time, he enjoys reading, walking his dog and parasailing. Article last reviewed: 2022 | St. Rosemary Institution © 2010-2024 | Creative Commons 4.0

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