THE PRINCIPLE OF INDIVIDUALITY (aka INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES)

  • Any training program must take into account the specific needs and abilities of the individuals for whom it is designed

-we are not created equal with respect to adapting to exercise training

-heredity plays a major role; except for identical twins, no 2 people have the same genetic

characteristics

-must look at factors such as pre-training fitness level, specific requirements within the

sport, age, gender, recovery ability, and susceptibility to injury

-variations in cellular growth rates, metabolism, and neural and endocrine regulation will

result in different responses to a given training program

THE PRINCIPLE OF SPECIFICITY (aka SPECIFIC ADAPTATION TO IMPOSED DEMAND)

  • The training program must stress the physiological systems that are critical for optimal performance in the given sport in order to achieve specific training adaptation

-training adaptations are highly specific to the type of activity and to the volume and

intensity of the exercise performed

For example: long distance swimmer versus long distance runner

-both require a strong cardiovascular system

-swimmer needs upper body strength (training in the water)

-runner needs lower body strength (training by weight bearing)

THE PRINCIPLE OF DISUSE (aka REVERSIBILITY)

  • When a muscle or muscle group undergoes a period of training, and then has that training effect removed, the muscle(s) will, over a period of time, lose  the benefits of the training that brought to it in the first place

-“USE IT OR LOSE IT”

-Examples:

Atrophy – occurs when muscles undergo a period of inactivity

Detraining – a time period in which the person removes or reduces the effects of training

  • A training program must include a maintenance plan

THE PRINCIPLE OF PROGRESSIVE OVERLOAD

  • All training programs must include the concepts of progressive and overload

-Examples

THE PRINCIPLE OF HARD/EASY

  • Vary intensity and duration of training allowing for breaks which give the body/mind time to recover

-Examples:

THE PRINCIPLE OF PERIODIZATION

  • Gradual cycling of specificity, intensity, and volume to achieve peak levels of fitness for competition

-closely related to the principle of hard/easy

-Examples:

General Adaptation Syndrome

-humans have a non-specific response to stress which incorporates 3 stages:

Stage 1 – the alarm reaction

-“fight or flight” response from CNS

Stage 2 – the stage of resistance

-adaptation phase

Stage 3 – the stage of exhaustion

-body no longer able to adapt to increasing loads of stress

THE PRINCIPLE OF DIMINISHING RETURNS

  • A person’s training gains will reflect that person’s prior level of training

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