• Claims
  • Society
  • Politics
  • Government
  • Sovereignty(citizenship)
  • The stats
  • Power

Claims

Can We Help with Your Assignment?

Let us do your homework! Professional writers in all subject areas are available and will meet your assignment deadline. Free proofreading and copy-editing included.

  • Empirical = factual claims pointing to actual evidence
  • Normative = evaluative (moral evaluation)
  • Combination of both in all claims about politics, etc. Make a balance of both

Society

  • 2 or more people developing/having a social relationship with each other
  • voluntary & spontaneous you create societies with people around you
  • self-sufficient; self generating societies that generate the society again and again and make it pass on to next generation
  • common rules of conduct
    • enforceable commands; a common set of rules that are set by people in the society
    • predictable behaviour
  • Individual: one human being

Politics

  • Is pursued through Coalitions — collective configurations: personal relationships, family, formal alliances, mass politics, etc. Small groups formed from coalitions change the world
  • Idea of the Common Good:
    • Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
    • “polis” = “city-state” in Greece
    • common political community
    • pursuing the “idea of the common good” — not self-interest(s) what is best for all of us
  • Human Projects:
    • Bertrand de Jouvenal: “activity of gathering and maintaining support for human projects”
    • Modernists: progress, individual achievements in a community
    • These are projects that are made for the good of people for example the soviet union and democracy
    • When these system don’t perform results they fail and end as people look for other systems
  • Management of Conflict:
    • JDB Miller: “disagreement or conflict”
    • Alan Ball: “reconciliation of disagreements”
    • Karl Marx: economic production; the state is needed to deal with problems using economic powers
  • Distribution of :
    • Lasswell: “the good things …[in] life” (material & non-material); we distribute things such as education to all it is all available and its a matter or choosing.
    • Easton: “authoritative allocation of values” (desires, etc.) how much do you want to get it, do you deserve it?
    • Foucault: subjectivity/identity — body, mind, legal. We are assigned identities by the society that protect us or go against us
    • Pateman: male sex-right = women’s role and services — reproduction, sexual access, marriage [add now: men’s] patriarchal-heterosexist system. It’s a system of how men set womens roles and rights. Its a sexual system, it all comes down to the women ie. Bill Clinton is remembered for his Monica L. Case rather then all his initiatives.
  • Bernard Crick: “not unity, but harmony” — really? Its creating these configurations of ideas and beliefs.

Government

  • specialized activity within a society; the structures within the society
  • enforce binding decisions on all individuals in a society
  • functions:
    • protection
    • enforce rules of conduct
    • settle disputes
    • provide services
  • force: selective use of power, but monopoly of use.
  • States aren’t universal eveyrones different but everyone has a government with a different structer

Sovereignty

  • Modern concept developed in Europe, but broader history as a general idea
  • Bodin: “in any community there ought to be a single highest authority who is not subject to other human authority”
  • Establish right of kings
    • Pateman: (Filmore v. Locke, etc.) head male of family — trans-historial and trans-cultural
  • Family is the base of sovereignty, the man is the power in this system
  • Leader is the head of the family
  • authority to over-rule and not be subject to other authorities
  • bundle of powers given to governments:
    • enforce rules
    • make laws
    • control government functions
    • ownership of all lands, they own all the property
    • deal with other sovereigns
    • non-interference by other sovereigns
  • two main types:
    • William Blackstone: parliamentary sovereignty = representative government; people give you the power to take control
    • Jean-Jacques Rousseau: popular sovereignty = direct democracy
  • may be delegated: militaries, bureaucracies, private groups, leaders, judiciary (judicial review), etc.
READ:
Origins of Canada’s Government

The State

  • Organized society
  • General elements:
    • (identifiable) population; your Canadian
    • (demarcated) territory
    • (defensible) sovereignty
  • European socio-eco-political institution-Treaty of Westphilia, 1648 a European treaty
    • “universal” = accepted as the only legitimate or recognized collective organization by whom?
    • collective subjectivity = identity — above, beyond, overriding others
      • Tribal systems in South America
      • Native confederacies in North America such as Caledonia
  • Citizenship: official membership in a particular state allowing certain privileges and rights (as compared to non-citizens) it gives us an identity
    • by birth
      • jus soli (soil) = born in the state
      • jus sanguinis (blood) = children of citizens
    • by naturalization
    • by identity?

Power

  • in general, two patterns [Nig’s approach]:
    • dominance & control = “the capacity to achieve what one wants” + the ability to make others do what one wants them to do
    • empowerment & emancipation = the capacity to empower people to achieve their wants + ability to remove obstacles preventing this achievement
  • in politics, power is:
    • a medium of exchange
    • a means and an end
    • pursuit or goal in relationship to other wants (domination, liberation, sex, race, etc.)
    • used for “good” and “evil”
  • Influence = persuade/convince
    • emotion = supportive
    • persons believe it is right, justified, or gain benefit through appeals to intellect/reason, passions, self-interest, group solidarity
  • Coercion — force/control
    • emotion = fear
    • persons believe violence or threat of violence will occur
  • Authority — accept/follow
    • leadership
    • power is accepted and followed
    • “respect source of command” = commander has right + follower has obligation to obey
  • Legitimacy — obey/oblige
    • followership
    • makes Authority possible
    • “right to obey”, “duty”, “obligation”
  • Authority-Legitimacy relationship — Max Weber:
    • traditional authority = inherited position of authority
    • legal authority = authority achieved through process and structures involving general rules agreed/consented/imposed upon all
    • charismatic authority = “extraordinary personal qualities” generating authority beyond/above (sometimes without) traditional or legal
  • Identity & Body:
    • Power over subjectivity = our identity
    • Biopolitics (Foucault & feminists): written in/on/of the body — war, sex, economy, psyche, etc.
    • Governmentality (Foucault): self-governing, self-regulating (Panopticon)
  • Language & Ideas
    • “Common Sense” = naturalizing languages & ideas, and limiting scope for critical inquiry (Gramsci)
    • Categories, words, knowledges, etc.

Cite this article as: William Anderson (Schoolworkhelper Editorial Team), "Concepts of Politics: Power, Government, Society," in SchoolWorkHelper, 2019, https://schoolworkhelper.net/concepts-of-politics-power-government-society/.
guest
0 Comments
Inline Feedbacks
View all comments