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Consists of laws that list the rights and obligations of each person in society.
Is the process of the law; outlines the steps in involved in protecting the rights given under substantive law.
Controls the relationship between the governments and the people who live in society. Main types: criminal, constitutional, and administrative law.
- Set of rules passed by Parliament
- Rules define acts called “crimes” that are offences against society
- Penalties are set for committing crimes
- Most criminal laws are in the Criminal Code
- Examples of criminal laws: The Youth Criminal Justice Act, The Controlled Drugs and Substances Act
- Purpose: to punish offenders and protect citizens
- Laws divided amongst the three levels of government: municipal, provincial, and federal
- The laws that controls the relationship between citizens and government agencies: LCBO, CRTC.
PRIVATE LAW (Civil Law):
- Outlines the legal relationships between private citizens and citizens and companies.
- Purpose: to manage disputes with citizens and organazations and to award damages to those who have been wronged
- Deals with relationships between individuals living together (spouses or partners) and between parents and children.
EX: same-sex couples, common-law, child support, divorce or separation, custody, separation of assets.
- Outlines requirements for legally binding agreements. There are responsibilities that both parties must adhere to.
- Deals with wrongs, other than a breach of contract, that one person commits against another person. EX: malpractice suits
- Set of legal rules that controls the use, enjoyment, and rental of property.
- Governs the relationships between employers and employees.
- EX: minimum wage, proper dismissal, working conditions…
Some Useful Terms
- Society is represented by the Crown in criminal cases
- Tries to prove charges against the accused person beyond a reasonable doubt
- Person(s) that are accused of committing or participating in a crime
- Is called the “Defendant” in criminal court
- Civil law proceeding.
- Person(s) who start the action or the lawsuit. The Defendant(s) are those being sued.
- A legal decision that serves as an example for future similar cases
- The ideas is that similar facts result in similar decisions
EX: Mark Hall case
- The act of “making good.” EX: returning a stolen item or compensating in another way-$