Classical theory has evolved into rational choice and deterrence theories: many criminals carefully calculate the costs and benefits of engaging in criminal activity. People who are willing to break the law value the thrill and excitement, and are willing to take greater risks than other people – only if benefits outweigh risks. Otherwise only an irrational person would continue to break the law.
|1. Strain Theory (Emile Durkheim)||people commit crimes when they believe they cannot achieve their desires and goals through legitimate means|
|2. Socialization Theory||the key influences leading to criminal behaviour are found in upbringing, peer groups, and role models|
|3. Social Conflict Theory||the root of crime is the unfair economic structures of capitalism|
|Contemporary Biological Theories|
|1. Biological Trait Theory||certain human traits, such as intelligence, personality and chemical and genetic make up, may predispose certain individuals to engage in criminal behaviour|
|2. Neurophysiologic Theories||focus on connection between neurological dysfunctions and criminal behaviour|
|3. Other||It is also argued that poor diet, the influence of hormones, and exposure to drugs or alcohol in the womb can cause a person to become a criminal|