Wilhelm WUNDT

  • Father of psychology, wanted to establish the study of the mind as a science.
  • Analyzed the mind in terms of its basic components [STRUCTURALISM]

William JAMES

  • Prof of psych, philo and physiology at Harvard.
  • Was a “big-picture” person and liked to look at things as a whole [FUNCTIONALISM]

Wolfgang KOHLER

  • Researched apes and other animals, concluded intelligence is the ability to perceive relationships (insight)
  • His research into insight learning opened new doors for the subjects of perception, intelligence and problem solving.

Jean PIAGET

  • Observed the development of intelligence in children.
  • Noted that cognitive development happened in stages and is completely independent from a child’s past experiences.

Albert ELLIS and Aaron BECK

  • Irrational thought patterns caused depression, not environment.

Sigmund FREUD

  • Studied hysteria, concluded that human nature is violent and sexual.
  • Repression mechanisms within the brain.
  • Adult personality is strongly influenced by our childhood experiences.
  • Never ending internal struggle between violence and repression.

Ivan PAVLOV

  • Classical conditioning of dogs [British Empiricism]

John B. WATSON

  • Proper subject of psychology is observable behavior. Behavior is influenced by the surrounding environment. [Behaviourism]
  • “Give me a dozen infants and I can raise them up to be anything”

B. F. SKINNER

  • “A person does not act upon the world, it acts upon him”
  • Stated mental events, images and thoughts are not causes of behavior, environment is cause of behavior [Modern Behaviorism]

Carl ROGERS

  • Humanistic Theory of Self-Conditioning
  • Created an entirely new area of Clinical Therapy.

Karl LASHLEY, Wilder PENFIELD

  • Wondered how different areas of the cerebral cortex affected the brain and its functions.
  • PENFIELD was able to create a detailed map of the brain and its functional areas.

Kurt LEVIN

  • Interested in the field of social psychology.
  • Believed that people acted as part of a group rather as an individual in society.

Rene DESCARTES

  • Wondered how is it that people feel things? Suggested the idea of a reflex arc
  • Suggested information was processed in a central brain region.

Gustav FECHNER

  • Into measurement, and wanted to know how to measure what we hear, see, or feel.

William JAMES and Mary CALKINS

  • JAMES founding father of psychology in the US, was interested in the physiology of learning.
  • CALKINS was first women to have degree in Harvard, first women Pres. Of American Association of Psychology.

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