|Achieved status||Gained by the individual through talent, effort and hard work.|
|Agents of socialisation||Social groups and institutions which have a role to teach us norms, values, customs, traditions etc.|
|Ascribed status||Status which is fixed and determined at birth.|
|Culture||The way of life of a social group, made up of norms and values. It is how a person understands how to behave and make sense of the world around them.|
|Cultural diversity||Different cultures living alongside each other in one society.|
|Femininity||Socially acceptable behaviour and characteristics appropriate to being female in our society.|
|Feral children||Children who have grown up with limited human contact.|
|Formal curriculum||What we learn from subjects on the school curriculum such as history, maths etc.|
|Formal social control||Ways of controlling behaviour with written rules, laws or codes of conduct. If these are broken, punishments include fines, ASBOs, imprisonment etc.|
|Gender roles||Cultural expectations attached to how males and females are expected to behave in our society.|
|Imitation||Copying the behaviour of others.|
|Informal curriculum||Also known as the Hidden Curriculum. How we learn social norms & values through how the school is organised.|
|Informal social control||Unwritten, more informal ways of controlling how people behave. Carried out by agents of social control which are also the agents of socialisation.|
|Masculinity||Socially acceptable behaviour and characteristics appropriate to how males are expected to behave in our society.|
|Nature/nurture debate||Debate about whether human behaviour is biological (inherited) or learnt from environmental influences around us.|
|Norms||Social rules of behaviour that relate to specific social situations and govern how we are supposed to behave.|
|Peer group||People of a similar age and status, usually friends or colleagues.|
|Peer group pressure||Influence peer groups have on their members to imitate group behaviour. It can be positive or negative.|
|Primary socialisation||Early stages of socialisation usually between birth and 4/5 years of age.|
|Roles||How a person is expected to behave in relation to their social position in society.|
|Role conflict||When the demands of one role conflict with those of another role.|
|Role models||People who are seen as setting a good example, in their behaviour and beliefs, for others to follow (especially young people)|
|Sanctions||The rewards and punishments used to socialise individuals. They can be positive or negative.|
|Secondary socialisation||Socialisation which takes place after we start full-time education. We begin to be influenced by those around us such as peer groups, teachers, media etc.|
|Socially constructed||Created by society and the people within it and passed from one generation to the next.|
|Social identity||How a person sees themselves as part of a group.|
|Status||A person’s social position or standing in society.|
|Sub-cultures||Different social groups who have their own norms and values – sometimes at odds with the larger culture that they live in.|
|Values||Beliefs that underpin rules of behaviour.|
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