1. International Business: Includes all commercial transactions (such as private and governmental, sales, investments, and transportation) that take place between two or more regions, countries, and nations beyond their political boundaries
  2. Balance of Trade: The difference in value between a country’s imports and exports
  3. Balance of Payments: The difference in total value between payments into and out of a country over a period
  4. Global Dependency: Mutual dependence between two countries at a global level, with one country depending on another country for trading of goods and services, and creating global interdependence
  5. Competitive Advantage: A condition or circumstance that puts a company in a favorable or superior business position
  6. Absolute Advantage: The ability of an individual or group to carry out a particular economic activity more efficiently than another individual or group
  7. Capital: Wealth in the form of money or other assets owned by a person or organization, and can be contributed for a particular purpose such as starting a company or investing
  8. Secondary Industry: Industry that converts the raw materials provided by primary industry into commodities and products for the consumer, manufacturing industry
  9. End Products: The product that is produced as the final result of an activity or process, especially the finished article in a manufacturing process
  10. Infrastructure: The basic physical and organizational structures and facilities (such as buildings, roads, and power supply) needed for the operation of a society or enterprise
  11. Recession: A period of temporary economic decline during which trade and industrial activity are reduced
  12. Unemployment: The state of being unemployed
  13. Franchise: An authorization granted by a government or company to an individual or group enabling them to carry out specified commercial activities (such as providing a broadcasting service or acting as an agent for a company’s products)
  14. Exchange Rate: The value of one currency for the purpose of conversion to another
  15. World Trade Organization: A global international organization dealing with the rules of trade between nations
  16. Business: The practice of making one’s living by engaging in commerce
  17. Trade Surplus: The amount by which the value of a country’s exports exceeds the cost of its imports
  18. Comparative Advantage: The ability of an individual or group to carry out a particular economic activity (such as making a specific product) more efficiently than another activity
  19. Economy: The wealth and resources of a country or region, especially in terms of the production and consumption of goods and services
  20. Entrepreneurship: The process of developing a business plan, acquiring required resources, and starting a business, company, or other organization
  21. Human Resources: The department of a business or organization that deals with the hiring, administration, and training of workers
  22. Gross Domestic Product: The total value of goods produced and services provided in a country during one year
  23. Subsidiary: A company controlled by a holding company
  24. Tariff: A tax or duty to be paid on a particular class of imports and exports
  25. NAFTA: North American Free Trade Agreement, an agreement signed by Canada, Mexico, and the United States to create a trilateral rules-based trading bloc in North America
  26. Exports: Send goods or services to another country for sale; a commodity or service sold abroad
  27. Trade Deficit: The amount by which the cost of a country’s imports exceeds the value of its exports
  28. Canada Trade Mission: A mission to develop long-term trade and investment opportunities in foreign markets for Canadian businesses, including small and medium-sized enterprises, young entrepreneurs, and new exporters
  29. Quota: A limited quantity or a fixed share of a particular product that under official controls can be produced, exported, or imported
  30. Opportunity Cost: The loss of potential gain from other alternatives when one alternative is chosen
  31. Business Cycle: A cycle or series of cycles of economic expansion and contraction
  32. Primary Industry: An industry such as mining, agriculture, or forestry that is concerned with obtaining or providing natural raw materials for conversion into commodities and products for the consumer
  33. Manufacturing: To make, produce, or fabricate a product on a large scale using machinery and industries
  34. Natural Resources: Materials or substances such as minerals, forests, water, and fertile land that occur in nature and can be used for economic gain
  35. Softwood Lumber Dispute: One of the largest and enduring trade disputes between Canada and the United States, the conflict arose in the early 1980s and its effects are still seen today
  36. Turnover: The amount of money taken by a business in a particular period
  37. Slump: A sudden severe or prolonged fall in the price, value, or amount of something
  38. Licensing Agreement: A legal contract between two parties, known as the licensor and the licensee. The Licensor grants the Licensee the right to produce and sell goods, apply for a brand name or trademark, or use patented technology owned by the licensor.
  39. Joint Venture: A commercial enterprise undertaken jointly by two or more parties that otherwise retain their distinct identities
  40. Separate International Division: In a company, the international staff is isolated and functioned separately for the company. The international division of a company has its own systems for sales, marketing, customer support, and logistics; and this department handles all products going to all foreign markets.
  41. Currency: A system of money for general use in a particular country
  42. Trade Sanction: A trade penalty imposed by one nation onto one or more other nations
  43. Investment Canada Act: A Canadian Federal Law governing large foreign direct investment in Canada
  44. United Nations: An intergovernmental organization established to promote international co-operation
  45. Global Economy: The spread of market-based economies around the world.
  46. Globalization: The process of the development of a global market-driven economy.
  47. Environmental Management: Management of environmental considerations including climate change, and worker and consumer health and safety.
  48. Gold Standard: A former monetary system under which the basic unit of currency was exchangeable for a specific weight of gold.
  49. Purchasing Power Parity: A theory suggesting that the exchange rate between currencies is in equilibrium when they purchase the same amount of goods and services.
  50. Special Drawing Rights: A reserve asset used by the International Monetary Fund in addition to gold and United States dollars.
  51. Multinational Enterprise: A business that manages production facilities or delivers services in many nations around the world.
  52. Plant Transfers: The movement of jobs from high-cost areas to low-cost areas.
  53. Global Mindset: The change from an ethnocentric to a global perspective in business and international affairs.
  54. Euro: The official common currency of many European Union member countries.
  55. Quality Management: A management strategy aimed at setting a specific standard in all organizational processes.
  56. Hard Currencies: A currency that is readily converted into other currencies especially United States dollars.
  57. Balance of Payments: The relationship between the payments made by one country to all other countries and its receipts from all countries.
  58. Bretton Woods: The site of the first world economic conference in July 1944.
  59. Big Mac Theory: The Economist magazine’s annual examination of purchasing power parity using McDonald’s Big Mac as a global product.
  60. Dollarization: The adoption of the United States dollar as a currency’s official currency.
  61. Central Bank: A country’s principal monetary authority; it regulates the money supply, issues currency and manages the exchange rate.
  62. Downsizing: To reduce the number of sizes.
  63. CE Marketing: A mandatory conformity certification on products used in the European Union.
  64. Workplace: A place such as an office or factory where people are employed.
  65. ISO: The acronym for the International Organization for Standardization headquartered in Switzerland.
  66. Third World Debt: The sum of debt owed by developing countries to financial institutions and governments in the developed world.
Cite this article as: William Anderson (Schoolworkhelper Editorial Team), "International Business – Terminology," in SchoolWorkHelper, 2019, https://schoolworkhelper.net/international-business-terminology/.

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