• Dissociation – The separation of ions that occurs when an ionic compound dissolves
  • Net Ionic Equation – Includes only those compounds and ions that undergo a chemical change in a reaction in an aqueous solution.
  • Spectator Ions – Ions that do not take part in a chemical reaction and are found in solution both before and after the reaction.
  • Ionization – Ions are formed from solute molecules by the action of the solvent.
  • Hydronium Ion – The H3O+ ion
  • Strong Electrolyte – Any compound whose dilute aqueous solutions conduct electricity well; this is due to the presence of all or almost all of the dissolved compound in the form of ions.
  • Weak Electrolyte – Any compound whose dilute aqueous solutions conduct electricity poorly; this is due to the presence of a small amount of the dissolved compound in the form of ions.
  • Colligative Properties – Properties that depend on the concentration of solute particles but not on their identity.
  • Nonvolatile Substance – One that has little tendency to become a gas under existing condition.
  • Molal Freezing-point constant – (Kf) the difference between the freezing points of the pure solvent and a solution of a nonelectrolyte in that solvent, and it directly proportional to the molal concentration of the solution.
  • Molal Boiling Point Constant – (K) The boiling point elevation of the solvent in a 1-molal solution of a nonvolatile, nonelectrolyte solute.
  • Boiling-point Elevation – The difference between the boiling points of the pure solvent and a nonelectrolyte solution of that solvent, and it is directly proportional to the molal concentration of the solution.
  • Semipermeable Membrane – Allows the passage of some particles while blocking the passage of others.

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