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Schemas – the representation in the mind of a set of perceptions, ideas, and/or actions, which go together

Assimilation – putting a new object into an old schema

Accommodation – putting an old object to a new schema

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Conservation – objects or sets of objects stay the same even if it changes or looks different

Decentration – ability to move away from one system of classification to another as appropriate

Operation – working something out in your head

Classification – group objects together on the basis of common features

Conjunction – Both A and B make a difference

Disjunction – It’s either this or that

Implication – If it’s this, then that will happen

Incompatibility – When this happens, that doesn’t

Identity – Leave it alone. Ex: It could be the string or the weight.

Negation – Negate the components and replace or’s with and’s. Ex: It might not be the string and not the weight, either.

Reciprocity – Negate the components but keep the and’s and or’s as they are.  Ex: Either it is not the weight or it is not the string.

Correlativity – Keep the components as they are, but replace or’s with and’s, etc.  Ex: It’s the weight and the string.

Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4
Sensorimotor Preoperational Concrete Operations Formal Operations
-1 -4 months –  action serves as a stimulus that respond to same action – ex: infant sucks thumb

-4- 12 months – act extends out the environment ex: squeeze duck – learn to make interesting things last (sounds).

-12- 24 months -concept of making interesting thing last – constant variation – hit drum, hit table, hit block.

-1 -2 years – ability to hold an image in their head, deferred imitation – doing something seen hour before. Mental combination – putting something down in order to open the door. Also good at pretending.

-2-7 yrs

-symbols represent something else. Ex: drawing, written or spoken word can be understood as a real dog.

-develop creative play

-clear understanding of past and future.

-child is egocentric – see things from one point of view (their own)

-7 – 11 yrs – logical operations or principles when we solve problems. Can manipulate symbols logically. Progress of de-centering.

-Classification – one set can include the others. Ex: more marbles or more black marbles. Seriation – putting things in order. Conservation – quantity remains same even if it changes

-Age 12 – competent at adult style thinking – using logical operations and using them in abstract rather then concrete (hypothetical thinking) allows to investigate a problem in careful and systematic way.

-Teenager – conjunction, disjunction, implication, incompatibility, identity, negation, reciprocity, and correlativity.

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