Schemas – the representation in the mind of a set of perceptions, ideas, and/or actions, which go together Assimilation – putting a new object into an old schema Accommodation – putting an old object to a new schema Conservation – objects or sets of objects stay the same even if it changes or looks different Decentration – ability to move away from one system of classification to another as appropriate Operation – working something out in your head Classification – group objects together on the basis of common features Conjunction – Both A and B make a difference Disjunction – It’s either this or that Implication – If it’s this, then that will happen Incompatibility – When this happens, that doesn’t Identity – Leave it alone. Ex: It could be the string or the weight. Negation – Negate the components and replace or’s with and’s. Ex: It might not be the string and not the weight, either. Reciprocity – Negate the components but keep the and’s and or’s as they are.  Ex: Either it is not the weight or it is not the string. Correlativity – Keep the components as they are, but replace or’s with and’s, etc.  Ex: It’s the weight and the string.
 Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 Sensorimotor Preoperational Concrete Operations Formal Operations -1 -4 months –  action serves as a stimulus that respond to same action – ex: infant sucks thumb -4- 12 months – act extends out the environment ex: squeeze duck – learn to make interesting things last (sounds). -12- 24 months -concept of making interesting thing last – constant variation – hit drum, hit table, hit block. -1 -2 years – ability to hold an image in their head, deferred imitation – doing something seen hour before. Mental combination – putting something down in order to open the door. Also good at pretending. -2-7 yrs -symbols represent something else. Ex: drawing, written or spoken word can be understood as a real dog. -develop creative play -clear understanding of past and future. -child is egocentric – see things from one point of view (their own) -7 – 11 yrs – logical operations or principles when we solve problems. Can manipulate symbols logically. Progress of de-centering. -Classification – one set can include the others. Ex: more marbles or more black marbles. Seriation – putting things in order. Conservation – quantity remains same even if it changes -Age 12 – competent at adult style thinking – using logical operations and using them in abstract rather then concrete (hypothetical thinking) allows to investigate a problem in careful and systematic way. -Teenager – conjunction, disjunction, implication, incompatibility, identity, negation, reciprocity, and correlativity.
William Anderson (Schoolworkhelper Editorial Team)
William completed his Bachelor of Science and Master of Arts in 2013. He current serves as a lecturer, tutor and freelance writer. In his spare time, he enjoys reading, walking his dog and parasailing. Article last reviewed: 2022 | St. Rosemary Institution © 2010-2024 | Creative Commons 4.0