Developed a theory about childhood development that still greatly influences behavioural psychologist and educators today.
-born in 1896-1980 in Neuchatel
-attended the University of Neuchatel
-received a PhD in Natural Science
-Moved to Paris, France to teach at an all boy school
-Here was what led him to his theory that young children’s cognitive processes are inherently different from those of adults.
-1921 returned to Switzerland and become the director of Rousseau Institute in Geneva
-1923 married Valentine Châtenay
-1929-1968 he was the director of the International Bureau of Education
-1979 awarded with Balzan Prize for Social and Political Science.
Theory of Cognitive Development:
- Sensori-Motor (birth – 2 years): Differentiates self from objects. Recognizes self as agent of action and begins to act intentionally (ex. pulling a string – mobile moves). Realizes that things exist even when no longer present.
- Pre-operational (2-7 years): learns to use language and to represent objects by images and words. Thinking is still egocentric (ex. Hard from them to take view points of others)
- Concrete Operational (7-11 years): Can think logically about objects and events. Achieves conservation of number (age 6) mass(age 7) weight(age 9)
- Formal Operational (11 years and up): Can think logically about abstract proposition and test hypotheses systematically. Becomes concerned with the hypothetical, the future and ideological problems.
Importance: Educators are able to teach to the child at the appropriate level depending on their stage of development. The result has been a greater understand and retention of the lesson taught.
-Russian psychologist > Lev Vygtsky stressed the importance of a child’s cultural background as an effect to the stages of development.
-challenged his theory that the hierarchy of learning development had to develop in succession.
-First interested in Biology and Natural Science
-Wrote his first article at the age of 10
-Published 60 books and several hundred articles (before the age of 21)
-In 1955 created the International Centre for Genetic Epistemology in Geneva.