The human body is a functioning system of many diverse parts which are all related to one another. The hormones which are found in humans are no different; they interact within the human body and take part in many vital and necessary procedures for the survival and reproduction of humans. The two major systems in which control and manipulate hormones would be the nervous and endocrine systems. This paper will examine these two systems and their relationship on hormones in humans.
Firstly hormones are chemical messengers that are carried throughout the blood stream to target cells (Freeman, 2002). Human hormones consist in very small percentages but their effect on target cells has drastic significance. Hormones are carried to many different cells in the body and they produce extensive results. The majority of hormones are grouped into three different groups; they are a polypeptide group, an amino acid derivative group, and a steroid group (Freeman, 2002.) They allow humans to organize substantial numbers of cells within the body in reaction to changes from environmental challenges, growth, development, reproduction and homeostasis (Freeman, 2002).
The endocrine system found in humans is a compilation of cells, tissues and organs responsible for the production and secretion of hormones. One of the parts of the endocrine system is the adrenal glands. More specifically to this is the hormone epinephrine, this hormone is an example of just what role hormones play inside the human body. Once a human is placed into an unsafe situation both the central nervous system and endocrine system are operational. The reaction of the human to the unsafe situation is an increase free glucose and fatty acids in the blood as well as increased pulse rate and results also showed an increase in blood flow to the heart, brain and muscles. The epinephrine changes the body from being relaxed to a body of tenseness and readiness (Freeman, 2002).
When discussing the nervous system and its involvement in hormones the most essential region to discuss is the pituitary gland. As previously discussed that both the endocrine system and nervous system both have a role in how hormones operate within the human body. The pituitary gland is found at the base of the brain and is attached to the hypothalamus (Freeman, 2002). An experiment carried out by Smith in which he removed the pituitary gland of rats showed the relationship between the endocrine system and the nervous system. Once the pituitary gland had been removed the rats stopped growing and they could not keep a consistent body temperature. Both of these areas were controlled by the release of hormones that came from the adrenal glands. This showed that without the pituitary gland other gland areas from the endocrine system ceased to function (Freeman, 2002). The consensus became that the pituitary gland was the master gland and that many other glands in the endocrine system depended on hormones from the pituitary in order for them to function properly (Freeman, 2002).
The fact that humans have hormones in our bodies allows us to survive and have allowed our species to become a very successful species. The relationship that is present between the endocrine system and nervous system allows for hormones to be direct and produces in a very efficient and useful matter. Without this interaction between the two systems humans could potentially face situations unprepared or could suffer much greater consequences than if hormones were not present in the human body.
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