> produces digestive enzymes and hormones

> hormone producing cells are in the islets of Langerhans

> islets contain beta (produce insulin hormone) and alpha cells (produce glucagon hormone)


> produced in beta cells

> released when blood sugar level increases

> cause muscle cells, the liver and other organs, to become permeable to glucose decreasing blood sugar level

> inside of cell, glucose is converted in to glycogen for storage

> causes decrease in blood sugar level


> produced in alpha cells

> released when blood sugar levels decrease

> causes conversion of glycogen to glucose, which is released into the blood

> causes increase in blood sugar level


>disease caused by insufficient production or use of insulin

> chronic with no cure

> causes many deaths and if left untreated causes blindness, kidney failure, nerve damage, and nontraumatic limp amputation

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