Female Genitalia


Clitoris: sensitive organ; tip of tissue situated externally in front of the vagina. Female clitoris is homologous to the male penis; same embryonic tissue. Both have corpora cavernosa and can become erect. Clitoris has NO direct function in reproduction; female orgasms freq. increase with age.

The Mons: Fatty pad of tissue under the pubic hair

Outer Lips: Pads of fatty tissue on either side of vaginal entrance Inner: folds skin lying of either side of vaginal entrance

Bartholin Glands: Two tiny glands located on either side of vaginal entrance (function unknown- sometimes become infected)

Perineum: Area of skin between vaginal opening and anus

Vaginal Opening: sometimes called introitus

Vulvar Vestibule: area enclosed by inner lips called vestibule (“entranceway”) ; contains the vagina/urethra. HIGHLY pleasurable to stimulation; many nerve ending [can suffer from dyspareunia (pain in vulva during sexual intercourse…caused by vulvar vestibulitis.

Hymen: thin membrane; that partially covers the vaginal opening. A wide variety of different hymen types, can be torn during intercourse or activities, or born without it.


Vagina: tube shaped organ which the penis is inserted into; When unaroused it will be about 8-10cm in length: has 3 layers! Vaginal muscosa: mucous membrane similar to the inner lining of the mouth. 2nd layer is muscular; outer layer is the covering. Vagina is extremely elastic. Lower 2-3rd of the vagina contains a majority of nerves. Pubococcygeus muscle (pubic floor muscles): may be stretching during childbirth.

Vestibular bulbs: tow organs about the size and shape of a pea pod. Lie on either side of vaginal wall. Erectile tissue the lie close to the clit.

The Lymphatic System: Parts, Function, Anatomy

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: Can scar the G-spot and prevent penile contact


Not sex organs but serve reproductive function and signal sexual fertility; 15-20 mammary glands..with opening for nipple and surrounded by clusters of glands.

The nipple consists of smooth muscle fibers that become erect on contact..dark part around nipple is the aureola.

Male Genitalia


The penis: tubular organs used for sexual pleasure, reproduction, elimination of waste, The entire penis is sensitive to sexual stimulation BUT the glans is most excitable.

Corpora Cavernosa/ Corpus Spongiosum: The spongy bodies running the top of the penis and the spongy length of the underside of the penis.

Foreskin: Layer of skin covering the glans/tips of penis; removed via circumcision

Supercision/ Subincision: cuts along the tops and bottom of penis; done for tribal cultures.

The Scrotum: loose pouch of skin, covered by hair and hold the testes.


Testes: (gonads) reproductive glands in males- analogy to female ovaries; manufacture sperm and testosterone. The seminiferous tubules are important in manufacturing/ storing sperm. Also the interstitial cells produce testosterone [found in connective tissues between tubules]. Cremasteric reflex: testes move closer when cold, away when warmer.

Tights jocks, long warm showers etc. can effect fertility of a man.

Spermatogoium -> Spermatocyte -> Spermatid -> Spermatozoan (sperm)

Sperm goes to rete testes then to epididymis then into vas deferens then move to ejaculatory ducts/ urethra

Seminal vesicles: sac like structures above prostate that produce seminal fluid

Prostate: shapes of chestnut, lies below the bladder; secretes alkaline fluid for ejaculate.

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Cowper Gland: located below prostate; produces clear alkaline fluid as lubrication and to neutralize acidity of urethra.


Breast Cancer: most common form of cancer in women; women should perform self-exam for early lump detection,. Lumps can either be fibrocystic, fibroadenomas, or tumours. Best way to discover is with a fine needle biopsy. Can be fixed typically with mastectomy (cutting of the breasts). Best detection is with mammography (x-ray of breasts)

Pap test used to tell cells from cervix and identify precancerous cervical cancer. HPV (16,18) are predominately the cause of this cancer. Women should get regular checkups, HPV vaccines and wear condoms. HPV causes anal cancer in men…can reduce it through “Herd Immunity”

Hysterectomy: the surgical removal of the uterus.  Women who have their ovaries removed often experience sexual problems and must undergo hormone replacement therapy.

Prostate Cancer: cancerous growth on the prostate that leads to enlargement, bulges and pushes on urethra and makes it difficult to urine or causes frequent urination. Men should get regular rectal prostate exams. Older men are prone to BPH, benign prostatic hypertrophy- inflammation of the prostate; hard to urine.

Cancer of testes: men should get monthly testicular self-exam…..most common cancer in men between 20-35.  Early self discovery and increase changes of survival..if not the testes may have to be removed.

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