Mass:  mass is the amount of material in an object.  Mass is measured with a balance, usually in grams or kilograms.

Volume: volume is the amount of space occupied by an object. Volume is measured using a graduated cylinder or is determined by calculation using the dimensions of the object.   Volume is measured in  cm3, m3, mL, and L.

Block

If the object is a square or rectangular block, use the formula   V = L x W x H to calculate volume.

Cylinder

volume-formula-cylinder

If the object is cylindrical, use formula on the right to calculate volume.

Liquid

If the substance is a liquid, just measure its volume with a graduated cylinder

For irregular-shaped objects:

Use the method known as displacement.  Fill a graduated cylinder or a container with a scale with a set amount of water.  Record the reading ( ie 50 mL).  Carefully add the irregular-shaped object to the cylinder.  Record the new reading ( ie 53 mL) and subtract that from the reading of the water only. The volume of the irregular-shaped object must be 3 mL.

density-formula

Density:  Density is a mass-to-volume ratio. Density can be used to identify a substance because every pure substance has a unique density value. Objects with smaller densities will float in liquids that have greater densities.

Calculating Density:  Use the following formula:

Density Chart for Common Substances

SUBSTANCE

STATE AT 200C DENSITY AT 200C ( g/cm3)

gold

solid

19.32

Lead

solid

11.35

silver

solid

10.5

copper

solid

8.93

nickel

solid

8.9

iron

solid

7.88

aluminium

solid

2.7

glass

solid

2.7

rubber

solid

1.2

oak(wood)

solid

0.7 -0.9

pine(wood)

solid

0.4 -0.5

Styrofoam

solid

0.005

mercury

liquid

13.6

glycerine

liquid

1. 26

Sea water

     liquid

1.01

water

     liquid

1

 acetone

     liquid

0.791

Methyl alcohol

     liquid

0.71

Ethyl alcohol

     liquid

0.79

chlorine

gas

0.0032

Carbon dioxide

gas

0.002

air

gas

0.0013

ammonia

gas

0.0003

helium

gas

0.0002

hydrogen

gas

0.0001

Cite this article as: William Anderson (Schoolworkhelper Editorial Team), "Mass, Volume, Density: Summary & Definitions," in SchoolWorkHelper, 2019, https://schoolworkhelper.net/mass-volume-density-summary-definitions/.

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