Mass: mass is the amount of material in an object. Mass is measured with a balance, usually in grams or kilograms.
Volume: volume is the amount of space occupied by an object. Volume is measured using a graduated cylinder or is determined by calculation using the dimensions of the object. Volume is measured in cm3, m3, mL and L.
If the object is a square or rectangular block, use the formula V = L x W x H to calculate volume.
If the substance is a liquid, just measure its volume with a graduated cylinder
For irregular-shaped objects:
Use the method known as displacement. Fill a graduated cylinder or a container with a scale with a set amount of water. Record the reading ( ie 50 mL). Carefully add the irregular-shaped object to the cylinder. Record the new reading ( ie 53 mL) and subtract that from the reading of the water only. The volume of the irregular-shaped object must be 3 mL.
Density: Density is a mass to volume ratio. Density can be used to identify a substance because every pure substance has a unique density value. Objects with smaller densities will float in liquids that have greater densities.
Calculating Density: Use the following formula:
Density Chart for Common Substances