• narrator disappears into a kind of roving sound camera
  • imposes severe limitations on the author
  • the author is not there to explain
  • purest example would be one written entirely in dialogue


  • a type of narrative in which the surface story reflects at least one other meaning
  • traditional allegory frequently employs personification (human characters to represent abstract ideas)
  • 19th century technique began to free from favour


  • another method of representing an alternate meaning
  • This became the preferred form


  • symbol bears or natural relation to events in the story
  • in allegory, the surface story is often an excuse for the secondary meaning often overlap

Primordial Symbols-

  • existing from the beginning
  • sunlight- joy, happiness, glory, truth
  • dark forests- danger, obscurity, confusion, unknown
  • river- passage of time
  • overcast sky- gloom, depression, despair
  • lamb- innocence, vulnerability
  • violent storm- inconsolable
  • flowers- delicacy, beauty
  • mountain- obstacle, challenge
  • eagle- majesty, freedom


  • White- purity, innocence
  • Red- passion, war, blood
  • Green- new life, hope

Indeterminate Allegory-

– human irrational drive to leave home and security temporarily behind, for whatever reason, to like a chance with one or more situations onto the wilder shores of experience.

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