|State||Leader & Symbolic Role||Method of Unification||Ruler’s Means of Control|
|Egypt||Pharoh (herdsman) sometimes functions as god.||Organizing labor to manage floods; distribution of food; use of Nile River as highway to unify, control.||Pharaoh’s commands, policies function as law, regarded as devine.|
|Mesopotamia city-states||King/Royals, mediate, lead, worship, receive oracles.||Organizing labor; distributing food; competition with other city-states.||Earliest law codes; rituals performed by oracles guide decision making.|
|China||Emperor/engineer, builder, hunter, takes on shaman’s role in receiving prophecies.||Organizing dike building, irrigation; use of Yellow River (Huang Ho) as highway to unify and control.||Ritual divination using oracle bones – foretelling future interpreting will of spirits.|
|Harappa||Uncertain if singular ruler of priests dominated ruling class.||Harnessing river, irrigation; distributing food; engineering and construction of complex urban systems.||Unknown; widespread standardization of measurements and trade point to coordination/leadership|
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