Murder

Canada:

First degree murder – mandatory life imprisonment without the possibility of parole for 25 years (but someone guilty of a single murder could be have his non-parole period reduced to no less than 15 years (see Faint hope clause).

Second degree murder – mandatory life imprisonment without the possibility of parole for 10-25 years (parole eligibility determined by the judge at sentencing, but if the person has a prior conviction for murder, parole eligibility is 25 years)

Finland:

The only possible punishment for murder is life imprisonment. Typically, the prisoner will be pardoned by the Helsinki Court of Appeals after serving 12 to 14 years of his sentence, but this is not automatic. The President can also give pardon, and previously this used to be the only possibility.

Israel:

5 types of punishments:

Murder – The premeditated killing of a person, or the intentional killing of a person whilst committing, preparing for, or escaping from any crime, is murder. The mandatory punishment for this crime is life imprisonment. Life is usually commuted (clemency from the President) to 30 years from which a third can be deducted by the parole board for good behaviour. Arab terrorists are not usually granted pardons or parole other than as part of deals struck with Arab terrorist organisations or foreign governments and in exchange for captured Israelis or their corpses.

Reduced sentence murder – If the murderer did not fully understand his actions because of mental defect (but not legal insanity or imbecility), or in circumstances close to self-defence, necessity or duress or where the murderer suffered from serious mental distress because of long-term abuse, the court can give a sentence of less than life. This is a new addition to the Israeli penal code and has been rarely used.

Manslaughter – The deliberate killing of a person without premeditation (or the other circumstances of murder) is manslaughter for which the maximum sentence is 20 years. The sentence depends on the particular circumstances of the crime and its perpetrator.

Negligent killing or vehicular killing – Maximum sentence is 3 years (minimum of 11 months for the driver). The perpetrator in this situation can expect to receive some jail time of about 6 – 12 months.

Infanticide – The killing of a baby less than 12 months old by its mother where she can show that she was suffering from the effects of the birth or breast-feeding. Maximum sentence is 5 years.

Texas: The judicial system of Texas is one of the most complex in the United States, with many layers and overlapping jurisdictions. Texas has two courts of last resort: the Texas Supreme Court, for civil cases, and the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals. Except for some municipal benches, partisan elections select judges at all levels of the judiciary; the Governor fills vacancies by appointment. Although only capital murder is eligible for the death penalty (Which are murders that are often performed with another crime ex: rape and assult), Otherwise life sentence without parol is applied. Texas leads the nation in executions, 400, from 1982 to 2007.

Abortions

Canada: Legal in all circumstances

Finland: Legal, but a legitimate reason must be provided

Israel: Legal unless done for social reasons: e.g. if the mother cannot afford to support a child

Texas: Legal in all circumstances

Brazil: Illegal unless the mother has been raped or to save the life of the mother.

Sodomy

Canada: Legal

Finland: Legal

Israel: Legal

Texas: Legal

Brazil: Legal

Assisted Suicide

Canada: Possibility of up to 14 years imprisonment for anybody assisting a suicide. Oddly, suicide itself is not a crime, having been decriminalized in 1961. Thus it is a crime to assist in a non-crime.

Finland: has nothing in its criminal code about assisted suicide. Sometimes an assister will inform the law enforcement authorities of him or her of having aided someone in dying, and provided the action was justified, nothing more happens. Mostly it takes place among friends, who act discreetly. If Finnish doctors were known to practice assisted suicide or euthanasia, the situation might change, although there have been no known cases.

Israel: Illegal, same sentence as premeditated murder. Life sentence is usually commuted (recommendation from the President) to 30 years from which a third can be deducted by the parole board for good behavior.

Texas: Illegal, regarded with same punishment as murder one.

Brazil: Illegal. Faces up to 25+ years in jail without parole.

Possession/ Trafficking of an illegal narcotic

Canada:

Substance Possession Trafficking or Possession for purpose of trafficking Cannabis (ex: marijuana) 30 grams or less: up to 6 months imprisonment or $1000 fine or both

More than 30 grams: imprisonment up to 5 years less a day

3 kilograms or less: imprisonment up to 5 years less a day

More than 3 kilograms: up to life imprisonment.

Cocaine/ Methamphetamine/ PCP/ Heroin: Up to 7 years- life imprisonment.

Ecstasy/ GHB/ LSD: Up to 3- 10 years imprisonment

Finland: Finland drug policy has gradually turned from lenient in the 1960s with a emphasis on drug supply towards a policy of zero tolerance against all illicit drug use (including cannabis). The official aim is a drug free society. Drug use itself became a punishable crime in 1988, but drug users have been of priority since the early eighties. Prevention includes wide spread drug testing, and the penalties range from fines for minor drug offenses up to a 10 year prison sentence for aggravated offenses. The condition for suspended sentences could be regular drug tests or submission to rehabilitation treatment. Drug treatment is free of charge and provided through the health care system and the municipal social services. Drug usage that threatens the health and development of minors could force them into mandatory treatment if they don’t apply voluntary. If the usage threatens the immediate health or the security of others (such as a child of a addict) the same could apply to adults.

Israel: Marijuana and hash are the most common drug found in Israel generally, both of which are illegal and so is any related action (buying, selling, growing, smoking). The Israeli law doesn’t distinguish between different kinds of drugs in terms of severity. However, there is an amount defined by the law as “for personal use” which is 15g (1/2 oz) for weed and hash. The police usually ignore marijuana smokers, but will probably arrest you if you got into any other kind of trouble and was carrying pot. If carrying an excess of 15g is found on the person it can added 3-4 additional years on top of whatever penalty they receive.

Texas: Almost Identical of Canadian Law.

Brazil: Possession of two ounces or less of marijuana and most other drugs is punishable by up to 180 days in jail and a fine up to $2,000. Possession of greater than two ounces is punishable by up to one year in jail and a fine up to $4,000. For greater than four ounces the penalty increases to 180 days – two years in jail and a fine up to $10,000. Possession of greater than five pounds carries a penalty of 2 – 10 years in prison and a fine up to $10,000. For greater than 50 pounds the penalties increase to 2 – 20 years in prison and a fine up to $10,000. For any amount greater than 2,000 pounds the penalty is 5 – 99 years and a fine up to $50,000.

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