Purpose: Two observe two different single displacement reactions. Zinc-Copper-Sulfate-reaction
Hypothesis:

When zinc is added to copper (II) sulfate, a single displacement reaction will take place, creating a solid, copper, and zinc sulfate.

When zinc is added to hydrochloric acid, hydrogen gas will be released a solid, zinc chloride, will be formed.

Materials:

  • Hydrochloric acid
  • Zinc
  • Copper (II) sulfate
  • Test tubes (4)
  • Graduated cylinder
  • Watch glasses

Procedure:

Part A

  • Pour 2ml of copper (II) sulfate in a test tube. Record the physical properties of the solution.
  • Record the physical properties of zinc.
  • Add the zinc to the solution.
  • Observe and record the reaction.
  • After 30 minutes, record the new colour of the solution and the physical properties of zinc.

Part B

  • Pour 2 ml of hydrochloric acid into the test tube. Record the physical properties of the solution.
  • After recording the physical properties of zinc, add it to the solution.
  • Observe and record the reaction.

Questions:

  • What indicated that a chemical reaction took place when zinc and copper (II) sulfate were combined?
    1. Observations such as zinc turning black soon after being placed in water indicated that a chemical reaction had taken place.
  • What indicated that a chemical reaction took place when zinc and hydrochloric acid were combined?
    1. When zinc and hydrochloric acid were combined, zinc turned black and hydrogen bubbles were released. This indicated that a chemical reaction had taken place.
  • Name the reactants in Part A:
    1. copper (I) sulfate + zinc
  • Name the products in Part A:
    1. zinc sulfate + copper
  • Name the reactants in Part B:
    1. hydrochloric acid + zinc
  • Name the products in Part B:
    1. hydrogen + zinc chloride
  • What new elements were formed in Part A? In Part B?
    1. Part A – copper

Part B – hydrogen

  • What new compounds were formed in Part A? In Part B?
    1. Part A – zinc sulfate

Part B – zinc chloride

  • Complete and balance the chemical equations below that represent the chemical reactions, which took place:
Zn + CuSO4 => Cu + ZnSO4
Zn + 2HCl => H2 + ZnCl2

 

  • What is a single replacement reaction?
    1. A single displacement reaction occurs when an element reacts with a compound in a chemical reaction. During the reaction, the element replaces the anion or the cation in the compound.
  • Complete and balance the following single replacement reactions:
A. Fe II + CuSO4 => FeSO4 + Cu
B. Cu I + AgNO3 => CuNO3 + Ag
C. Zn + AgNO3 => Zn(NO3)2 + Ag
D. Cu II + HgCl2 => CuCl2 + Hg
E. K + NaCl => KCl + Na
F. 2HOH + Ca => Ca(OH)2 + H2
G. MgBr2 + Cl2 => MgCl2 + Br2
H. Fe2O3 + 2Al => Al2O3 + 2Fe
I. 3H2SO4 + 2Al => Al­2(SO4)3 + 3H2
J. 2KI + Cl2 => 2KCl + I2

 

  • Write the names of the reactants and products for the equations listed in question number 12:
  Reactants Products
A. iron copper (I) sulfate iron (II) sulfate copper
B. copper silver nitrate copper (I) nitrate silver
C. zinc silver nitrate zinc nitrate silver
D. copper mercury (II) chloride copper (II) chloride mercury
E. potassium sodium chloride potassium chloride sodium
F. water calcium calcium hydroxide hydrogen gas
G. magnesium bromide chlorine gas magnesium chloride bromine gas
H. iron (III) oxide aluminum aluminum oxide iron
I. sulfuric acid aluminum aluminum sulfate hydrogen gas
J. potassium iodide chlorine gas potassium chloride iodine gas

 

Theory:

In order for a single displacement reaction to occur, an element and a compound need to be present. When the element and the compound are mixed, the element replaces the anion or the cation in the compound. During the experiment, when zinc was added to copper (II) sulfate, zinc reacted with copper (II) sulfate to create zinc sulfate and copper. In this reaction, the element, zinc, replaced copper in the compound copper sulfate, thus creating zinc sulfate. Similarly, when hydrochloric acid reacted with zinc, zinc replaced hydrogen, creating zinc chloride and hydrogen gas.

zinc-reacted-with-copper-II-sulfate

ZnHCLFormula

Observations:

Reactants Colour State
Part A:
Copper (II) sulfate Blue Liquid
Zinc Silver, metal Solid
Part B:
Hydrochloric acid Clear Liquid
Zinc Silver, metal Solid

Fig 1. Physical properties of the reactants

Products Colour State
Part A:
Zinc sulfate Light blue Liquid
Copper Red-brown Solid
Part B:
Zinc chloride Black Solid
Hydrogen gas Clear Gas

Fig 2. Physical properties of the reactants

Conclusion:

When zinc was added to copper (II) sulfate, it reacted to create a solution, zinc sulfate, and a solid, copper. When zinc was added to hydrochloric acid, hydrogen gas and zinc sulfate were produced, therefore the hypothesis was supported.

Sources of error:

During the experiment, several factors could have possibly affected the results of the observations. One of these factors includes the contamination of the test tubes. After washing the test tubes, water or other acids could have been left behind, affecting the results of the upcoming experiments. Another factor that would have affected the results would have been the inaccurate measurement of the solution. Even if the solution differed by few drops, it could have affected the results.

Works cited:

Clancy, Christina et al. McGraw-Hill Ryerson Chemistry 11. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2011. Print

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