1. Help Signals – Smoke: smoke from a signal fire can be made to contrast with the surrounding environment.
-Whistles and Mirrors: Use anything that you have that reflects the sun’s rays, as this is a good way for calling for help.
-Morse CODE – Mirrors, flashlights, or whistles are three ways you can send Morse CODE.
2. Thirst – If it is extremely hot, take shelter or wear protective clothing.
-Eat as little as possible because when you digest food, your body uses a lot of water.
-At sea, collect as much rainwater as possible. An area with some plants would be a good place to build a solar still.
3. Making Fire – You need three materials to start a fire; tinder, kindling, and fuel.
-If you do not have matches, use a glass lens to focus the sun’s rays.
-You could also chip a flint stone against steel to make sparks.
4. Extreme Cold – Keep dry because when you are wet, you become even colder as water evaporates from clothes.
-Wrinkle your face and wriggle your fingers and toes at regular intervals to keep your blood circulating.
-Make a snow shelter using a large blanket.
5. Extreme Heat – Drink as much water as possible to stay hydrated.
-Take shelter during the day, and travel only at night.
-Keep your clothes on to prevent sunburn.