• Chrematitic (Chremata= money)
  • Either sponsored by a city-state or a sanctuary
  • Greeks were most proud of their stephanitic victory but also were proud of their chrematitic victories (Greek athlete mixed his prizes from both type of event together)
  • Fame of the chrematitic games usually depended on how much prize money was offered
  • If sponsored by sanctuary, the games greatly resembled the stephanitic games (BUT: there was prize money, participants were not protected by sacred truce)

The Asklepeia

  • Ran by small city state of Epidauros
  • Asklepios: bastard son of Apollo and a mortal woman, became hero-god of healing
  • Sanctuary of Asklepios was constructed in the 4th century: best preserved monument is theatre
  • Abaton: sick would spend the night here while being cured (i.e by wound licking by snakes/ dogs or dreams & visions)
  • Privately run and women were allowed in sanctuary, not sure if they were allowed to take part in events
  • Animal sacrifices were made and took place 9 days after Isthmia
  • Composed of nude competitions & musical events (NO horse events)
  • Had hysplex, balbis, skamma etc.

The Panathenaia

  • Most important money game
  • Held in honour of Athena
  • A lot of visual evidence about the events; thanks to Amphoras
  • Began in 566BC (only for Athenians but then opened to all Greeks)
  • 4th year= Greater Panathenaia (included nude, horse, musical competitions)
  • Musical events had money prizes and prizes for 1st, 2nd, 3rd. 4th (given gold crown and varying amount of drachmas & silver drachmas (total value EXCEEDED MILLIONS)
  • Only foot race event was stadion, but full pentathlon [ALL EVENTS= 3 age groups]
  • Would receive varying amounts of amphoras based on place or age group
  • Amphoras: one side= Athena / other side= Event of victor
  • Amphora= trophy / oil inside= cash prize (holds 38.4L)
  • Horse events mimicked the Crown Games (NOTE: horse winner received the biggest monetary value of the entire event
  • Ten athlethetai (prize producers) were selected from each tribe of Athens (held office for 4 years) Responsible: for game organization, vase production, prize presentation)
  • These men were feed for free at Prytanieon at public expense
  • Archons (chief magistrates) were appointed to paint the vases over a 4 year period while oil was gathered
  • Competition took place inside the city (marble seating was donated)
  • Lesser Panathenaia (civic competitions): only open to Greeks; prizes were smaller, other events were included with were more military in nature
  • Competition for akon thrower from horseback (winner: based on accuracy- NO ankyle); men wore petasos (hat) and boys wore chlamys (cloaks)
  • Pyrrhiche (pyrrhic dances): open to ALL AGES. Military ballet in helmets/ shields with coordinated movements or acrobatics (1 team per tribe) events was paid for by choregos (citizen-sponsor)
  • Euandria: “Beautiful manliness or manly beauty” (beauty pageant, involving strength)
  • Not depicted on amphora; most handsome; was allowed the bear sacred objects in the Panathenaic procession
  • Lampadedromia (torch race) 10 teams, 1 pre tribe, ~40 members per team; ran through city pass memorial cemetery of Athens in city (2.5 kilometers; ~60m per member) torches must keep bearing or team is disqualified (no amphora paintings or awarded)
  • Not sure if entire team, individual runner, or anchor received the prize (at altar stands a base hydria (water jar) and ­archon basileus (king archon)
  • Runner wear headgear to mark their tribal team (victor delivers a torch that awaits him to Athena and MILLER: believes prize is awarded to the anchor runner)
  • RACE: from gymnasion of Akademy to Athena’s altar (flame symbolizes life)
  • Hoplomachina (armed combat/ fencing) [amphora was shorter than usual, question whether it is a part of the Panathenaic
  • Apobates: four horses driven by a charioteer, accompanied by armed warrior (1 per tribe, ~700m event, warrior would dismount at specified places; run alongside chariot and then remount (may have occurred several times, warrior would finally dismount and run to the finish line)
  • Anthippasia: horse event. Two sides: 5 tribes for time; performing trained military exercises (older man leading a team of youth)
  • FINAL Event: boat race at sea. (~50km), suggested warship (trireme, with 170-198 boatsmen (prize: two hundred free meals (sacrificed oxen) & two drachma)

The Eleutheria

  • Held by Larissa -> Eleutheria (Freedom) Games in honor of Zeus
  • ONLY citizens of Larissa could participate (stadio, diaulos, pyx, pankration [for men 7 boys])
  • Trumpet & Herald events, but NO music events
  • Also had: torch race for boys, apobates, cavalry marksmanship, cavalry charge, infantry charge, archery [BUT NO TEAM EVENTS]
  • Special events: 1) torch race on horseback 2) taurotheria (bull hunt) -> horse rider would chase a bull around an enclosure until it became tired, bring horse and bull together and form hippotauric synoris; then ride would jump from his horse onto the neck of the bull and bring it to the ground

The Karneia

  • Held by Sparta
  • Farming, Harvesting and most work was done by indigenous servants
  • Spartans developed a legendary military force with all their leisure time
  • Many games; but lack a comprehensive program
  • Most important events= Hyakinthia & Karneia
  • Both were sacred to Apollo; had horse and musical events
  • Karneia is better known about. Has stadion, dialous, dolichos, macros (long distance foot race), pente dolichos (5 times the length of dolichos)
  • Spartans put great emphasize on long-distance running
  • No Spartan won hoplitodromos at Olympia
  • Many Running and Pentathlon victories for Sparta
  • Spartans did not compete in boxing or pankration at the Panhellenic games or host them locally
  • Spartans refused to compete either event
  • Held their own Rugby like event; sphaireis (ball players) compete in game with episkyros
  • There was punching & shoving
  • Platanistas (plane-tree grove); teams of ephebes; two teams at a time; and objective was to push the opposing team off the island (fighting, kicking, biting, gouging)
  • Sanctuary of Artemis Orthia: rites of passage by young to steal CHEESE from the altar; while being whipped by friends and family. Go until their succeed or until death
  • Victor -> bomonikes (altar winner)
  • These games also were used to train men and boys into military service when needed

Money games: more military-like, subjective competitions, prizes for multiple places than Olympia

author avatar
William Anderson (Schoolworkhelper Editorial Team)
William completed his Bachelor of Science and Master of Arts in 2013. He current serves as a lecturer, tutor and freelance writer. In his spare time, he enjoys reading, walking his dog and parasailing. Article last reviewed: 2022 | St. Rosemary Institution © 2010-2024 | Creative Commons 4.0

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