• Chrematitic (Chremata= money)
  • Either sponsored by a city-state or a sanctuary
  • Greeks were most proud of their stephanitic victory but also were proud of their chrematitic victories (Greek athlete mixed his prizes from both type of event together)
  • Fame of the chrematitic games usually depended on how much prize money was offered
  • If sponsored by sanctuary, the games greatly resembled the stephanitic games (BUT: there was prize money, participants were not protected by sacred truce)

The Asklepeia

  • Ran by small city state of Epidauros
  • Asklepios: bastard son of Apollo and a mortal woman, became hero-god of healing
  • Sanctuary of Asklepios was constructed in the 4th century: best preserved monument is theatre
  • Abaton: sick would spend the night here while being cured (i.e by wound licking by snakes/ dogs or dreams & visions)
  • Privately run and women were allowed in sanctuary, not sure if they were allowed to take part in events
  • Animal sacrifices were made and took place 9 days after Isthmia
  • Composed of nude competitions & musical events (NO horse events)
  • Had hysplex, balbis, skamma etc.

The Panathenaia

  • Most important money game
  • Held in honour of Athena
  • A lot of visual evidence about the events; thanks to Amphoras
  • Began in 566BC (only for Athenians but then opened to all Greeks)
  • 4th year= Greater Panathenaia (included nude, horse, musical competitions)
  • Musical events had money prizes and prizes for 1st, 2nd, 3rd. 4th (given gold crown and varying amount of drachmas & silver drachmas (total value EXCEEDED MILLIONS)
  • Only foot race event was stadion, but full pentathlon [ALL EVENTS= 3 age groups]
  • Would receive varying amounts of amphoras based on place or age group
  • Amphoras: one side= Athena / other side= Event of victor
  • Amphora= trophy / oil inside= cash prize (holds 38.4L)
  • Horse events mimicked the Crown Games (NOTE: horse winner received the biggest monetary value of the entire event
  • Ten athlethetai (prize producers) were selected from each tribe of Athens (held office for 4 years) Responsible: for game organization, vase production, prize presentation)
  • These men were feed for free at Prytanieon at public expense
  • Archons (chief magistrates) were appointed to paint the vases over a 4 year period while oil was gathered
  • Competition took place inside the city (marble seating was donated)
  • Lesser Panathenaia (civic competitions): only open to Greeks; prizes were smaller, other events were included with were more military in nature
  • Competition for akon thrower from horseback (winner: based on accuracy- NO ankyle); men wore petasos (hat) and boys wore chlamys (cloaks)
  • Pyrrhiche (pyrrhic dances): open to ALL AGES. Military ballet in helmets/ shields with coordinated movements or acrobatics (1 team per tribe) events was paid for by choregos (citizen-sponsor)
  • Euandria: “Beautiful manliness or manly beauty” (beauty pageant, involving strength)
  • Not depicted on amphora; most handsome; was allowed the bear sacred objects in the Panathenaic procession
  • Lampadedromia (torch race) 10 teams, 1 pre tribe, ~40 members per team; ran through city pass memorial cemetery of Athens in city (2.5 kilometers; ~60m per member) torches must keep bearing or team is disqualified (no amphora paintings or awarded)
  • Not sure if entire team, individual runner, or anchor received the prize (at altar stands a base hydria (water jar) and ­archon basileus (king archon)
  • Runner wear headgear to mark their tribal team (victor delivers a torch that awaits him to Athena and MILLER: believes prize is awarded to the anchor runner)
  • RACE: from gymnasion of Akademy to Athena’s altar (flame symbolizes life)
  • Hoplomachina (armed combat/ fencing) [amphora was shorter than usual, question whether it is a part of the Panathenaic
  • Apobates: four horses driven by a charioteer, accompanied by armed warrior (1 per tribe, ~700m event, warrior would dismount at specified places; run alongside chariot and then remount (may have occurred several times, warrior would finally dismount and run to the finish line)
  • Anthippasia: horse event. Two sides: 5 tribes for time; performing trained military exercises (older man leading a team of youth)
  • FINAL Event: boat race at sea. (~50km), suggested warship (trireme, with 170-198 boatsmen (prize: two hundred free meals (sacrificed oxen) & two drachma)

The Eleutheria

  • Held by Larissa -> Eleutheria (Freedom) Games in honor of Zeus
  • ONLY citizens of Larissa could participate (stadio, diaulos, pyx, pankration [for men 7 boys])
  • Trumpet & Herald events, but NO music events
  • Also had: torch race for boys, apobates, cavalry marksmanship, cavalry charge, infantry charge, archery [BUT NO TEAM EVENTS]
  • Special events: 1) torch race on horseback 2) taurotheria (bull hunt) -> horse rider would chase a bull around an enclosure until it became tired, bring horse and bull together and form hippotauric synoris; then ride would jump from his horse onto the neck of the bull and bring it to the ground

The Karneia

  • Held by Sparta
  • Farming, Harvesting and most work was done by indigenous servants
  • Spartans developed a legendary military force with all their leisure time
  • Many games; but lack a comprehensive program
  • Most important events= Hyakinthia & Karneia
  • Both were sacred to Apollo; had horse and musical events
  • Karneia is better known about. Has stadion, dialous, dolichos, macros (long distance foot race), pente dolichos (5 times the length of dolichos)
  • Spartans put great emphasize on long-distance running
  • No Spartan won hoplitodromos at Olympia
  • Many Running and Pentathlon victories for Sparta
  • Spartans did not compete in boxing or pankration at the Panhellenic games or host them locally
  • Spartans refused to compete either event
  • Held their own Rugby like event; sphaireis (ball players) compete in game with episkyros
  • There was punching & shoving
  • Platanistas (plane-tree grove); teams of ephebes; two teams at a time; and objective was to push the opposing team off the island (fighting, kicking, biting, gouging)
  • Sanctuary of Artemis Orthia: rites of passage by young to steal CHEESE from the altar; while being whipped by friends and family. Go until their succeed or until death
  • Victor -> bomonikes (altar winner)
  • These games also were used to train men and boys into military service when needed

Money games: more military-like, subjective competitions, prizes for multiple places than Olympia

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Post comment