The Effect of the Earth’s Rotation & Revolution

When watching the stars at night, they do appear to move very slowly.  This is because the Earth is constantly moving. The Earth completes one “rotation” every twenty-four hours.  A rotation is when the planet spins around once. The Earth rotates counterclockwise; this is why the Sun “rises” in the East and “sets” in the West.  It is not the Sun’s movement that causes days, but rather the Earth turning around in front of the Sun. The Earth’s axis (the point at which it rotates around, for example, if you were to spin around while standing in one spot, your axis would be an imaginary line running through your head straight down to your feet) is in line with a star named “Polaris”. Polaris is also known as the “North Star” since it is directly above the Earth’s axis.  Since this star is directly above the Earth’s axis, it does not appear to move, however the rest of the stars in the sky move around Polaris (for example: when you spin around, the object directly above your head does not appear to move but everything else seems to spin around that object). Polaris is only seen in the Northern hemisphere and it belongs to the Little Dipper constellation (it’s the last star at the end of the “handle”).

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The Effect of The Earth’s Rotation

Another type of motion is known as “revolution”.  Revolution is when one object completes a circular path around another object. The Earth takes 365.24 days to revolve around the Sun.  This is why a year is 365 days long. During the year the Earth is angled differently towards the Sun.  These changing angles provide us with different Sun intensities and therefore we get four different seasons. Since the Earth is at different positions in space over the year, we see different constellations throughout the year.

Coriolis Effect: Defection of wind due to rotation of Earth

UP [NORTH]: West DOWN [SOUTH]: East (On Surface)

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Northern Hemisphere: Deflected to the right (clockwise)

Southern Hemisphere: Deflected to the left (counter-clockwise)

Trade Winds: high pressure wind blown to the west from 30N

Westerlies: deflected to the east

Earth is currently in a cool phase characterized by formation of glaciers (glacial maxima), followed by warm periods with glacial melting (interglacial periods). These glacial–interglacial cycles occur at frequencies of about 100,000 years. We are currently in an interglacial period; these have lasted about 23,000 years in the past. The last glacial maximum was about 18,000 years ago.

The glacial–interglacial cycles have been explained by regular changes in the shape of Earth’s orbit and the tilt of its axis—Milankovitch cycles.

Circular rotation causes glaciers to melt; more solar radiation; Elliptical= less radiation. The intensity of solar radiation reaching Earth changes, resulting in climatic change. The shape of Earth’s orbit changes in 100,000-year cycles. The angle of axis tilt changes in cycles of about 41,000 years. Earth’s orientation relative to other celestial objects changes in cycles of about 22,000 years.

The Effect of Planet’s Motions

Thousands of years ago, people were able to clearly see the night sky (no “light pollution”).  The one thing they noticed is that five “stars” seemed to wander faster through the night sky than other stars.  These “stars” were actually the planets Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. People called these objects “wandering stars”.  Their names were then changed to planets which is after the Greek word “planetes” which means “wanderers”. All planets rotate on their axes and revolve around the Sun, however these times are different for each planet. Planets move through constellations as well.  This motion usually takes a few weeks. Many constellations are named after animals.  The Greek word for “animal sign” is “zodion”.  This is why we have star groups called the zodiac constellations. Depending on which zodiac constellation was visible when you were born is the “sign” you have been assigned.  For example: Aquarius, Leo, Gemini, Sagittarius, etc. Many people believe that zodiac signs determine certain traits and characteristics of people.  This is known as “astrology” and is not a legitimate science based on truth or facts.  Astrology is simply for entertainment.

Revolution Around the Sun vs. Rotation upon Axis

Revolve, as in orbiting the Sun? Yes, all the planets in our solar system orbit the Sun in the same direction Earth does. Some comets and asteroids orbit backwards, and some (more so comets than asteroids) orbit virtually perpendicular to the plane of Earth’s orbit.

Rotate, as to spin on ones axis (the thing that causes day and night on Earth)? Earth rotates counter-clockwise, as seen from above Earth’s north pole, the same direction it revolves around the Sun. But two planets (used to be 3, when Pluto was a planet) rotate clockwise – Venus and Uranus. Some might quibble about Uranus, as it spins on its side, but technically it rotates clockwise.

Why do they all revolve in the same direction, and most rotate in the same direction? Because of the way the solar system formed. It formed out of a nebula – a giant cloud of gas and dust in space. This cloud had a slight rotation to it. Gravity caused the dust and gas to come together, but since the nebula was spinning, it collapsed into a disk instead of a sphere. The center of the disk, that’s where the Sun formed. The rest of the disk (now rotating quite nicely) is where the planets formed. So all the planets revolve in the same direction because that’s the direction the original nebula was rotating.

Why do some planets now rotate backward? They got clobbered by one or more large asteroids while they were forming, which caused their rotation rate/direction to change. Earth got clobbered, too, at least once – that’s how we got our Moon!

Effects of Earth’s revolution and tilt

The Earth’s revolution has several effects including the seasons and the variable duration of days/ nights. Also, the Earth’s tilt and axis relative to its orbital plane have a significant effect as well. This results in one hemisphere tilting toward the sun and the contra lateral hemisphere tilting away. The hemisphere titled towards the sun will experience warmer weather and longer daytime hours. Whereas the hemisphere titled away from the sun will experience cooler temperatures and shorter daytime hours. This variation in daytime hours and average temperature cases by revolution and tilt results in the different seasons of the year. If the Earth were exactly perpendicular to its orbital plane, the seasons would not occur. It would also cause both hemispheres to experience approximately 12 hours of daylight and darkness during a 24-hour period. The Earth’s current axis is 23.5 degrees, if it were to be tilted more, this would result in warmer summers and colder winters. respectively.

For example, the summer solstice occurs when the Northern Hemisphere is at its maximum tilt toward the sun. During this period the sun will be directly overhead long the latitude of 23.5 degree N; otherwise known as the Tropic of Cancer. During the first day of summer, location along the latitude of 23.5 degree of the North pole experience 24hrs of daylight.

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Hellen
Hellen
5 months ago

What about effects of rotation of the earth on its own axis

J. Danica
J. Danica
6 months ago

not enough information to complete my report

derfst
derfst
1 year ago

wow I learn a lot!

Henry J.
Henry J.
2 years ago

It doesn’t mention some important facts; such as when it is summer, winter, spring and autumn

R. Choundary
R. Choundary
2 years ago

The phenomena of revolution gives us?

Daniel P.
Daniel P.
2 years ago

This is actually amazing. The difference of Time from place to place is caused by the earth rotation.

Raimi
Raimi
2 years ago

I just want effect of earth revolution

Question
Question
2 years ago

I have a “Question”so i tried to look why does it affect oír view of the might sky

Suleman Vincent
Suleman Vincent
3 years ago

I need more explanation on solar system

angela mensah
angela mensah
3 years ago

I want further distinctions and details

Waliba Abraham
Waliba Abraham
3 years ago

Can I get the major effects of the earth movement

Eliyah
Eliyah
3 years ago

There has to be more information on the earth’s rotation, there was only one THING about it.

Lahsa G.
Lahsa G.
3 years ago

I need information on how earth’s rotation around the sun shapes the Earth. I also am needing information on how different forces shape the earth; Volcanoes, earthquakes, erosion, Earth’s rotation around the sun, ocean currents, tides, weather, and the water cycle. I am currently researching how these shape the earth and i will need more info.

M Chopin
M Chopin
4 years ago

In the picture with the earth rotating around the sun… if the earth rotates exactly 360 degrees, or 1 revolution every 24 hours (i.e. one revolution every day), should not the same identical picture of the earth be in each of the four positions for each of the four months indicated (jan, march, sep, dec)… oh, but that might might mess up the shading from the sun on each of the earth pictures… but, maybe some food for thought. That will really get those brain juices flowing. Just something to think about. So if it were noon in southern California… Read more »

alex
alex
Reply to  M Chopin
3 years ago

ok man i got you. there are 2 things you aren’t taking into consideration. 1) after one day the earth only moves 1/365 of a way around the sun, not 1/360 2) sidereal days exist. a sidereal day is how long the earth takes to rotate once. the whole 360 degrees. a solar day is the day we use, and it’s the amount of time it takes for the sun to be in the exact same position. a sidereal day is only 4 minutes shorter than a solar day, so from day to day you can hardly tell, but if… Read more »

Hanna
Hanna
4 years ago

I only want about earths rotation

Litz O'Pule
Litz O'Pule
4 years ago

Wow, lots of info to be used

Lucy
Lucy
4 years ago

What about the spin of the Earth?

Dylan Riley
Dylan Riley
4 years ago

nice mate

aleana
aleana
4 years ago

perfect, a lot of info

Caleb S.
Caleb S.
4 years ago

Thank you sir