Up until the age of 12 to 14 (approximately the stage of puberty) boys and girls do not differ significantly in height, weight, girth, bone width, or skinfold thickness.
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- 40-60% weaker in the upper body
- 25-30% weaker in the lower body
- 5-15% weaker in lower body strength relative to body weight
- no difference in lower body strength relative to fat free mass
- significantly weaker in upper body strength relative to body weight
- significantly weaker in upper body strength relative to fat free mass
- use their lower bodies more often
- have a higher percentage of fat free mass below the waist
- for the same amount of muscle, have the same strength as males
- possess smaller muscle fibre cross-sectional areas
- have less muscle mass in general
- have a higher heart rate response to submaximal exercise
- have the same maximum heart rates
- have the same cardiac output for absolute submaximal power output
- have a smaller stroke volume
- have smaller hearts which means smaller left ventricles
- have lower testosterone concentrations
- have smaller blood volumes
- are less aerobically active which means less conditioned
- have a lower a-vO2diff which means a lower hemoglobin content and therefore a reduced muscle oxidative potential
- work at a higher percentage of their VO2max
- have a higher breathing rate
- have a smaller body size
- remember VO2 = Q x a-vO2diff
- have their peak VO2max between 12-15 years of age compared to 17-21 years of age for males
- extra body fat
- lower hemoglobin levels which means lower O2 content in the arterial blood