Quotations are the most convenient method of providing proof in an academic essay. They may range in length from one word to several lines. There are conventions and rules that MUST be followed when you integrate quotations into your essay.

Short quotations should be made part of your own sentences and enclosed in quotation marks

Long quotations should be indented and single-spaced. Do not use quotation marks. Use a comma or colon to introduce your quotation.

Quotations may be placed at the beginning, in the middle or at the end of sentences.

Quotation marks should enclose the entire quote. Put the author and page number in parentheses ( ) directly after the quotation. The period is placed after the ( ).

Do not assume your reader understands the exact connection between the point your made and your quotation (proof). You must provide analysis and explanation following your quotation.

Omissions within quotations must be marked by ellipsis (. . .)

Changes or additions within a quotation must be marked by square brackets [ ]. You will want to make changes for verb tense and pronoun consistency.

Avoid boring or ordinary constructions such as “the author writes” or “the author is trying to say”.

Incorporating Quotations

Quotations are the most convenient method of providing proof in an academic essay. They may range in length from one word to several lines. There are conventions and rules that MUST be followed when you integrate quotations into your essay.

Short quotations should be made part of your own sentences and enclosed in quotation marks

Long quotations should be indented and single-spaced. Do not use quotation marks. Use a comma or colon to introduce your quotation.

Quotations may be placed at the beginning, in the middle or at the end of sentences.

Quotation marks should enclose the entire quote. Put the author and page number in parentheses ( ) directly after the quotation. The period is placed after the ( ).

Do not assume your reader understands the exact connection between the point your made and your quotation (proof). You must provide analysis and explanation following your quotation.

Omissions within quotations must be marked by ellipsis (. . .)

Changes or additions within a quotation must be marked by square brackets [ ]. You will want to make changes for verb tense and pronoun consistency.

Avoid boring or ordinary constructions such as “the author writes” or “the author is trying to say”.

Short Quotation:

Atticus tells Jack “children are children, but they can spot an evasion quicker than adults, and evasion simply muddles ’em” (Lee 116).

Long Quotation:

Jem and Scout receive air-rifles from Atticus, but it is Uncle Jack who helps them:

Uncle Jack instructed us in the rudiments thereof; he said Atticus wasn’t interested in guns. Atticus said to Jem one day, “I’d rather you shot at tin cans in the back yard, but I know you’ll go after birds. Shoot all the bluejays you want, if you can hit ’em, but remember it’s a sin to kill a mockingbird.” (119)

Omissions:

“Aunt Alexandra was fanatical on the subject of my attire … I wasn’t supposed to be doing things that required pants” (108).

Original quotation:

” Aunt Alexandra was fanatical on the subject of my attire. I could not possibly hope to be a lady if I wore breeches; when I said I could do nothing in a dress, she said I wasn’t supposed to be doing things that required pants” (108).

Modifications/Additions:

Miss Maudie “think[s] maybe [Atticus] put his gun down when he realized that God had given him an unfair advantage over most living things” (130).

Original quotation:

“I think maybe he put his gun down when he realized that God had given him an unfair advantage over most living things” (130).

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