The Rise of the Nation-State

  • Political leaders driven to consolidate power
  • By 1871 the process of consolidation and unification had created modern Germany and Italy, altering the balance of power
  • The struggle between states for land and wealth occurred primarily outside Europe through imperialism
  • The process of expanding a nation’s territory through the acquisition of colonies and dependencies.
  • The ideology of nationalism linked the individuals identity with the state, connecting his/her sense of pride, prestige and power with the internal and external strength of the nation.
  • Success of a nation did not depend upon national sentiment, but political leaders had to be able to harness the power of the people’s pride in the state in pursuit of national objectives.
  • What is an example of political leaders attempting to harness the people’s pride to pursue an objective?

Louis Napoleon Bonaparte

  • No longer a monarchy, but a republic.
  • A state in which supreme power is held by the people or its elected representatives and not by a monarch
  • Ruled as president from 1848-1852
  • As emperor as Napoleon III from 1852-1870 during the time of prosperity in which Paris was restored as the diplomatic and cultural capital Europe
  • Ended in disaster

Louis Napoleon Bonaparte III (1808-1873)

  • Prussia overwhelming victory over France in 1870 brought Napoleon III and has Second Empire to an end
  • Resulted in modern Germany as the dominant power in Central Europe
  • On Dec. 1-2 1871, the army occupied Paris and the police arrested 78 National Assembly deputies
  • Army killed 200 rioters on Dec. 4, while suppressing a left wing uprising in Paris.
  • During the rule of Napoleon III, the French populace seemed content of democracy.
  • The economy was prosperous, as the boom in railroad construction had a multiplier effect that stimulated French industries and generated employment
  • Created “Credit Mobilier”, an investment trust in which citizens deposited savings, which in turn financed industrial development
  • What does that resemble today?
  • By 1860, financial scandals, dissent over foreign policy and reawakened political criticism
  • Napoleon responded by liberalizing reforms that:
  • relaxed controls on the press,
  • allowed freer debate in legislative assembly,
  • made ministers more responsible to elected representatives,
  • reduced the influence of the church on education,
  • made schools more accessible to females and
  • legalized trade unions and the right to strike.

Modern Germany: The Role of Key Individuals

  • From 1815-1848, liberal nationalists dreamed of the creation of a unified Germany under a liberal constitution
  • Significant political obstacles
  • German confederation of 1815 brought together 39 states, including the larger and more powerful Prussia and Austria
  • purpose of the confederation was not to unite German states but to preserve the existing political structure of small states ruled by absolutist
  • Economic and social development had begun to break down some of the divisions between Prussia and Austria
  • 1834, customs union, brought the northern German states, including Prussia but excluding Austria, into a closer economic association.
  • “Greater Germans” are those who favoured the inclusion of Austria, were drawn largely from southern Catholic regions
  • “Lesser Germans” are those who favoured the exclusion of Austria and looked to Prussian leadership, were drawn largely from northern Protestant areas

Britain 1867-1894

  • Mid-1860, the issue of the voting and the question of when, by whom and to whom
  • Throughout the second half of the first nineteenth century, Britain witness a struggle between the forces of change.
  • Social reform and the forces of continuity, in support for the monarchy and other conservative traditions
  • Gladstone won the electorate campaign in 1880 and gave his liberals a majority
  • Lord Salisbury became the dominate party in Britain for the next two decades due to Gladstone’s Irish Home Rule bill

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