Who are you?

Can We Help with Your Assignment?

Let us do your homework! Professional writers in all subject areas are available and will meet your assignment deadline. Free proofreading and copy-editing included.

What makes “you”?

Your behavior is common to other but it is also distinctive

Personality: Distinctive and relatively enduring ways to thinking, feeling, acting

"Be Bold" No-Essay $10,000 Scholarship

The $10,000 “Be Bold” Scholarship is a no-essay scholarship that will be awarded to the applicant with the boldest profile. To us, boldest does not mean “best”, or “most accomplished”. Being bold means being: Earnest, Determined, Moving. The scholarship will be awarded to the student whose profile is most bold, according to these characteristics.

That characterizes a person’s response to situations

Freud’s Bio

  • Born in 1856
  • Lived most of his life in Vienna
  • Medical school, neurology, received a grant to study psychiatry
  • Set up practice in neuropsy
  • Psychnoanalysis
  • Id, Ego ,Superego
  • Freudian slip
  • Psychosexual stages of Development
  • Oedipal Complex
  • Defence Mechanisms
  • Interpretation of Dreams
  • Penis Envy
  • Influence on laer psychologists
  • Cocaine

Psychic Energy: generated by instinctual drives

Mental Events: Conscious, Preconscious, Unconscious


  • Hysterical women in Vienne
  • The “talking cure”
  • Anna O: the beginning of psychoanalysis
  • Catharsis= explosive release of pent up emotions
  • Hypnosis and free association


  • Unconscious
  • No direct contact with reality
  • Only structure present at birth
  • Operates according to pleasure principle


  • Conscious level (primarily)
  • Operates according to ‘reality principle’ (meet id’s needs in realistic way)


  • Morality aspects of personality  (right or wrong)

Defence Mechanisms

  • Repression: placing uncomfortable thoughts & wishes in the unconscious mind
  • Revealed in slips of the tongue, dreams (e.g childbirth pain, childhood abuses)
  • Sublimation: unacceptable impulses are presented as socially desirable behavior (mask true feelings, wishes)
  • Denial: Refusal to acknowledge situation; blocking external events from awareness (death, alcoholism, pregnancy during affairs)
  • Displacement: Finding a ‘safe target’
  • Projection: An unacceptable impulse is repressed and then projected onto another person
  • Rationalization” You construct a false, but reasonable, explanation for an event that already occurred

Freund: Psychoseuxal Development

Series of stages

  • Focuses on specific pleasure-sensitive areas of body
  • Adult personality is a function of progressing through these stages


  • Arrested development where instincts focused on particular area
  • Long term effects on our character

Oral Stage

  • 0-2 years
  • Focus of pleasure on the mouth
  • Fixation= self-indulgence; dependency

Anal Stage

  • 2-3 stages
  • Fixation= compulsive, cleanliness, rigid rules


  • 4-6 years
  • Focus of pleasure on genitalia
  • Conflicts may result in homosexuality, authority problems
  • Oedipal crisis for boy
  • Penis Envy for women


  • 7- puberty
  • Period of dormant sexuality


  • Puberty +
  • Formation of social & sexual relationships

Praise for Freud

  • most influential psychologist ever
  • psychoanalysis has been very popular
  • huge impact on pop culture recognized importance of
  • unconscious influences on behaviour
  • recognized importance of early development on adult behaviour


  • Psychoanalysts who disagreed with Freud
  • Felt Freud failed to recognize social & cultural factors
  • Overemphasized infantile sexuality
  • Personality develops throughout life span
  • Childhood experiences were important but not sole determinants

Neoanalytic Approaches

Alfred Adler

  • Humans are motivated by social interest
  • Place social welfare above personal interests
  • Striving for superiority compensate for real or imagined defects
  • (inferiority complex) become more competent

Neoanalytic Approaches

Carl Jung

  • Analytic psychology
  • Personal unconscious (your life)
  • + Collective unconscious (human race)


  • reflect collective unconscious
  • Numerous cultures
  • Common: symbols, good, evil, gero
  • Superiority complex
  • Social Interest

Humanistic Approach

Reaction to Freud

  • Positive view that emphasizes goodness of humankind
  • Emphasis on role of (conscious/ self-actualization)
  • Maslow’s hierarchy of Needs
  • Become self-actualized when he gives back all the decoration and presents

Carl Rogers Self Theory

Self-concept: central concept

Organized, consistent set of perception & beliefs about oneself

Once established- tendency to maintain it

Congruence: consistency between self-perceptions & experiences

What happens when your experience does not “match” your self-concept?


  • Arises when experience is inconsistent with selfconcept
  • “Why is he making that face? I’m a good cook.”

Healthy Adjustment

  • Individuals modify self-concept
  • “Not all people find me a good cook.”


  • Individuals distort reality
  • “They are just not clever enough to see that I am a good cook.”
  • Can lead to ‘problems in living’/ Not flexible in their perception of themselves

Need for Positive Regard

  • Innate need for acceptance, sympathy, love, essential for healthy development

Unconditional Positive Regard

  • Independent of behaviour

Conditional Positive Regard

  • Dependent upon behaviour
  • Creates ‘conditions of worth’


How positively or negatively we feel about ourselves

High self-esteem

  • Less susceptible to social pressure
  • Fewer interpersonal problems
  • Achieve at higher level

Poor self-esteem

  • Anxiety and depression
  • Poor social relationships
  • Underachievement


  • Motivated to confirm self-concept
  • Seek out self confirming relationships
  • Want people to see you like how you see yourself”

Roger’s Self Theory

  • He experienced Unconditional Positive Regard when the “whos” accepted him even though he had tried to take away Christmas

Social Cognitive Theories: Rotter

  • Locus of Control: How much control do you have in your life?
Theories of Crime: Classical, Biological, Sociological, Interactionist

Internal (move successful in life)

  • Events under personal control
  • Sense of personal effectiveness


  • Luck, chance, powerful others
  • Give into ‘powerful’ others

Self-Efficacy (Bandura)

  • Beliefs about your ability to perform a task
  • High efficacy will do better, persist longer, seek out feedback

What influences self-efficacy?

Performance attainments

  • Previous successes or failures

Observational learning

  • Observing others

Verbal persuasion

  • Positive or negative messages from others

Emotional arousal

  • Arousal that can inhibit or enhance performance

Barnum Effect

  • Simple Horoscope:
  • Barum effect: statement taken from a newsstand astrology book
  • On a scale of 0 (poor) to 5 (perfect) students rated a 4.5
  • People accept very general or vague characterization of themselves and take them as accurate

Cattell’s trait Theory

  • How can we decide what fundamental traits are?
  • Dictionary identifies 18,000 personality descriptors
  • Cattell narrowed this down to 170 descriptors
  • Had subject rate themselves on each one and used factor analysis to group them
  • Cattell derived 16 source traits

Traits approach

  • Reflect a basic dimension or traits
  • Each dimension reflect a “continuum’ of behavior (extrovert à introvert)
  • Each of us can be placed at some point on the continuum

Extraversion- stability Model

  • Both traits are present in every person, in different degrees

Extroverted- Introverted

  • Eq. sociable, take risks, inhibited, cautious

Stable- Unstable

  • Eg. Emotionally stable, poised excessive worry, moodiness

Ability to “ignore things” that extroverts are distracted by or reactive to is a strong characteristic for success in introversion

Eysenck’s Two Factors

Extroversion (+) vs. Introversion

  • Do you like mixing with people? (+)
  • Do you like plenty of bustle and excitement around you? (+)
  • Are you rather lively? (+)

Stable vs. Unstable (+) (= Neuroticism)

  • Do you often feel lonely? (+)
  • Does your mood often go up and down? (+)

Extraversion- Stability Model

  • Knowing how Extraverted a person is tells us nothing about his level of emotional stability
  • 2 “super traits” combine to form more specific traits

5 Factor Model

Variation on these 5 factors create enormous diversity in personalities…adequate to describe important features of personality

Openness (O)

  • Tolerance for new ideas and new ways of doing things

Conscientiousness (C)

  • Degree of organization, preference for goaloriented activity

Extraversion (E)

  • Preference for social interaction, activity for activity’s sake

Agreeableness (A)

  • Orientation toward compassion and caring about others

Neuroticism (N)

  • Tendency toward negative emotionality, instability, inability to cope

Effects of Age

  • Less open to experience
  • More conscientious
  • Less extroverted
  • More agreeable
  • Less neurotic

Consistency Paradox

Walter Mischel

  • Little consistency in traits such as honesty
  • Little consistency across situations

How can this be?

  • We behave differently in different situations
  • Trait descriptions overemphasize consistency
  • Our intuition expects to see consistency; empirical evidence does not support this

Stability of Personality Traits

Can you predict behaviour from personality traits?

Difficult because:

  • Traits interact with other traits
  • Importance’ of trait influences consistency
  • Variation in ‘self-monitoring’


  • High = attentive to situational cues
  • Low = attentive to internal beliefs

Are you a high self-monitor?

High Self-monitors

  • People who modify their behavior based on the situation

Low Self-monitors

  • People who behave in a consistent manner regardless of the situation

Four Temperaments

  • Sanguine– Blood (cheerful, even tempered)
  • Choleric– Yellow Bile (Quick tempered, easily initiated)
  • Melancholic– Black Bile (sad, Resigned)
  • Phlegmatic– Phlegm (Dull, indifferent)

Biological Perspective

Extraversion – Introversion

  • Brains of extreme extroverts = under-aroused
  • Seek to maximize stimulation
  • Brains of extreme introverts = over-aroused (try to minimize stimulation)

Introverts (vs. Extroverts)

  • Respond more strongly to stimuli
  • More sensitive to pain of electric shocks
  • Salivate more when tasting lemon juice
  • Show more arousal to a sudden noise
  • Perform worse in noisy settings are impaired by caffeine ( vs. extroverts who are enhanced)
  • Have more activation in frontal lobes

Personality Assessment


  • Structured set of standardized questions
  • note other behaviours – appearance,  speech patterns,  facial expressions etc.

Behavioural Assessment

  • Need explicit coding system
  • specific behavior, frequency, under what conditions
  • Interjudge reliability

Personality Scales

Objective measures: use standard questions & agreed upon scoring key

2 Types


  • Based on theoretical conception of trait
  • Item seems ‘relevant’ to the trait
  • Big 5 personality traits


  • Items were answered differently by differing groups

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)

  • Based on responses by ‘normals’ and psychiatric patients
  • M: 1,138 F: 1,462
  • Ages 18-80
  • Vulnerable to faking


  • 10 clinical scales
  • 3 validity scales
  • (L) lie
  • (F) frequency (exaggerates complaints)
  • (K) correction (denies problems)
  • Configuration pattern of scales
  • Measures severe personality deviations
  • Screening device in industrial, military
  • Settings

New occupation-specific mean profiles present targeted information to help provide strong support for hiring decisions.

Projective tests

  • Presented with ambiguous stimulus
  • Interpretation = projection of inner needs, feelings, ways of viewing the world

2 main tests

  • Rorshach Inkblots
  • Thematic Apperception Test

Rorschach Inkblots

  • 10 inkblots
  • Categorized according to ‘types’ of objects seen
  • Different examiners – different interpretations?
  • Test is always used in conjunction with other tests

Thematic Apperception Test

  • Ambiguous illustrations/ photos

Who uses what tools?

  • Psychodynamic = projective techniques
  • Humanistic = self-report measures
  • Social-cognitive = behavioural assessments
  • Biological = physiological measurements
  • Trait theorists = inventories (MMPI, NEO-PI)

Inline Feedbacks
View all comments