- Def: Building up of arms (weapons) to deter (scare) others from attacking.
- Germany was competing with the UK to build battleships.
- The British feared an attack on their Empire
- Germany was competing with Russia and France to expand their armies
- Def: Banding together of countries against a common threat.
- By 1914, all the major powers were linked by a system of alliances.
- The alliances made it more likely that a war would start.
- Once started, the alliances made it more likely to spread.
- Triple Entente (France, Britain and Russia) vs. Triple Alliances (Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy)
- Allies vs. Central Powers
- Also, Serbia, which Russia promised to protect.
- Also Belgium, which Britain promised to protect
- And, the colonies, such as Canada, who were automatically at war when Britain went to war
- All the great powers were competing for colonies / territory.
- Land = power
- Germany was envious of Britain’s colonial possessions (25% of globe)
- The British feared Germany in Africa
- Serbia feared Austria (terrorism)
- The Austrians feared Serbia (allies with Russia)
- Def: Feelings of great loyalty to one’s people and homeland. Can lead to feelings of superiority.
- This was an age when all nations wanted to assert their power and independence.
- In Europe Slavs, aided by Serbia and Russia, wanted to be free of Austrian rule.
- Balkan = Serbia, Bulgaria
- Albania, Romania, etc.
- Britain: large navy, empire
- France: history of “greatness”
- Russia: big (land)
- Austria-Hungary: large empire, strong army, “natural leaders of Europe”
- Germany: navy rivaled Britain; “natural leaders of Europe”
- Italy: recently unified as a country; looking to prove itself
The Crisis 1.
- 28 June 1914
- Heir to Austrian throne Franz Ferdinand visits Sarajevo.
- Capital of Bosnia, recently grabbed by Austria.
The Crisis 2.
- “Black Hand” –Serbian nationalist group /‘terrorists’ attack the Arch Duke
- Bomb attempt fails in morning
- Gavrilo Princip shoots Archduke and wife in the afternoon.
- Austrians blame Serbia for supporting terrorists.
- Assassination at Sarajevo, Bosnia
The Crisis 3.
- Austrians, supported by Germany, send Serbia a tough ultimatum (demand by one government to another – accept terms or face war).
- Serbia agrees to all but one term of the ultimatum.(pg 69)
- Russia mobilises her troops to support Serbia
- Germany demands that Russia stands her armies down -> Russia refuses
- Germany declares war on Russia (Aug. 1, 1914) and on France the next day
- Why did Canada get involved?
- Canada was an independent country
- But all foreign policy controlled by Britain
- When Britain went to war, Canada automatically went to war