• Location is the arrangement and presentation of physical and temporal elements in a work.


  • time of year (season)
  • time of day (morning, afternoon, evening)
  • month (September, January)
  • era, century, decade (Victorian, 20th century, 1920’s)
  • duration of the narrative
  • details of the passage of time (falling leaves – autumn, snow – winter)
  • sequencing of time
  • use of time as a direction of movement in the narrative (flashbacks – looking back; flash forwards – looking ahead)
  • life (youth/age)


  • relationship between time and place (WWI – trench warfare)
  • description of the surroundings, colours, shapes
  • movement from place to place
  • creations of new societies (futuristic, fantastical)
  • the physical height of the action and the relationship of the objects around
  • the  angle from which the action is viewed (vantage point)
  • urban versus rural settings (regionalism/locality/metropolis)
  • macrocosm/microcosm
  • symbolic elements of setting
  • garrison mentality of the characters due to an isolated environment
  • features of the physical setting
  • presence of the elements (weather) and its significance
  • exterior/interior
  • relationship of that setting to the actual world
  • tone/atmosphere created by the location (pathetic fallacy)


  • The tone is the dominant emotion(s) the writer wishes to establish in the work.
  • parody/satire (Parody imitates the characteristic style of an author or an existing work for the purpose of ridicule; satire mocks the folly and voice of people and institutions, inspiring the reader to correct the faults.)
  • verbal irony, situational irony, litotes, hyperboles, and wit are also used to convey sarcasm and humour
  • Diction, detail, imagery, and syntax all contribute to tone
  • types (comedy, tragedy, gothic novel, etc.) of literature contribute to tone
  • Tone Words
  • Abusive
  • Affectionate
  • Forceful
  • Hypercritical
  • Laudatory
  • Bitter
  • Confident
  • Contemptuous
  • Cynical
  • Somber


  • Tropology is the use of image, metaphor, symbol and archetype in a work to manipulate the literal meaning of what is said or to substitute one meaning for another.
  • Image – triggers the reader to recall visual, olfactory, tactile, auditory, and gustatory memories he/she has of the physical object being described. (five senses)
  • Simile – explicit comparison between two things using “like” or “as”
  • Metaphor – implicit analogy between two things; it depends more on the reader’s imagination; it is more abstract
  • Symbol – Like an image, the symbol should bring to the reader’s mind a picture of an object.
  • However, a symbol goes much farther in that it should also summon up abstract associations with the object (ex. In Christian symbolism, a cross.
  • This is an example of a culturally based symbol.
  • In addition, a symbol can be private to the author only, but with repetition throughout a work or a series of works, this symbol comes to carry the abstraction.
  • With specific reference to an object the writer’s personal symbol becomes obvious to the reader.
author avatar
William Anderson (Schoolworkhelper Editorial Team)
William completed his Bachelor of Science and Master of Arts in 2013. He current serves as a lecturer, tutor and freelance writer. In his spare time, he enjoys reading, walking his dog and parasailing. Article last reviewed: 2022 | St. Rosemary Institution © 2010-2024 | Creative Commons 4.0

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