• Location is the arrangement and presentation of physical and temporal elements in a work.


  • time of year (season)
  • time of day (morning, afternoon, evening)
  • month (September, January)
  • era, century, decade (Victorian, 20th century, 1920’s)
  • duration of the narrative
  • details of the passage of time (falling leaves – autumn, snow – winter)
  • sequencing of time
  • use of time as a direction of movement in the narrative (flashbacks – looking back; flash forwards – looking ahead)
  • life (youth/age)


  • relationship between time and place (WWI – trench warfare)
  • description of the surroundings, colours, shapes
  • movement from place to place
  • creations of new societies (futuristic, fantastical)
  • the physical height of the action and the relationship of the objects around
  • the  angle from which the action is viewed (vantage point)
  • urban versus rural settings (regionalism/locality/metropolis)
  • macrocosm/microcosm
  • symbolic elements of setting
  • garrison mentality of the characters due to an isolated environment
  • features of the physical setting
  • presence of the elements (weather) and its significance
  • exterior/interior
  • relationship of that setting to the actual world
  • tone/atmosphere created by the location (pathetic fallacy)


  • The tone is the dominant emotion(s) the writer wishes to establish in the work.
  • parody/satire (Parody imitates the characteristic style of an author or an existing work for the purpose of ridicule; satire mocks the folly and voice of people and institutions, inspiring the reader to correct the faults.)
  • verbal irony, situational irony, litotes, hyperboles, and wit are also used to convey sarcasm and humour
  • Diction, detail, imagery, and syntax all contribute to tone
  • types (comedy, tragedy, gothic novel, etc.) of literature contribute to tone
  • Tone Words
  • Abusive
  • Affectionate
  • Forceful
  • Hypercritical
  • Laudatory
  • Bitter
  • Confident
  • Contemptuous
  • Cynical
  • Somber


  • Tropology is the use of image, metaphor, symbol and archetype in a work to manipulate the literal meaning of what is said or to substitute one meaning for another.
  • Image – triggers the reader to recall visual, olfactory, tactile, auditory, and gustatory memories he/she has of the physical object being described. (five senses)
  • Simile – explicit comparison between two things using “like” or “as”
  • Metaphor – implicit analogy between two things; it depends more on the reader’s imagination; it is more abstract
  • Symbol – Like an image, the symbol should bring to the reader’s mind a picture of an object.
  • However, a symbol goes much farther in that it should also summon up abstract associations with the object (ex. In Christian symbolism, a cross.
  • This is an example of a culturally based symbol.
  • In addition, a symbol can be private to the author only, but with repetition throughout a work or a series of works, this symbol comes to carry the abstraction.
  • With specific reference to an object the writer’s personal symbol becomes obvious to the reader.

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