Safety Elements in the Weight Room
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- Never lift alone
- Ensure area is clear of obstacles/clutter
- Inspect equipment and safety clips before proceeding
- Wear proper clothing and footwear – tie up hair, remove jewelry
- No horseplay (pushing, shoving, running about)
- Use progressive weight advancement (start low)
– First 6-7 repetitions are relatively easy, but the last 3 are a challenge!
- Concentrate on form and technique (do not talk while lifting/lowering).
- Lift and lower SLOWLY – should never hear masses slamming down – focus on smooth controlled motion with a slight pause at each end of a movement
- Alternate on machines in partners, be considerate of those waiting on you
- Breathe out on a lift, and in when lowering – never hold your breathe
Stop if you feel dizzy or light-headed – you might drop the weight and hurt yourself or someone else!
When do we get stronger?
- A muscle will be strengthened when it is forced to operate beyond its normal intensity level (this means you have overloaded it)
- Hypertrophy will result – this means the muscle will increase in size
Increasing the Challenge
A) increase the resistance (more weight)
B) increase the # repetitions
C) increase the # sets
D) increase the intensity (reduce recovery time)
How much weight?
Generally, the maximum weight a person can lift is referred to as the one repetition maximum (1RM). Loads are calculated as a percentage of the 1RM and strength training occurs in the range of 60-100% of the 1RM. Examples of the load to number of recommended reps are listed below.
|Percentage of 1RM||Number of Repetitions|
Weight Training Theory
1. A good physical warm-up should elevate the body’s temperature. It is generally recommended that a light, easy exercise (jogging, skipping) precede flexibility exercises (stretching), as a warm muscles stretch more easily than cold ones. A good warm-up will improve performance and will lessen the possibility of injury.
- Load – the amount of resistance placed on the muscle (the weight)
- Repetition – each repetition is a single complete action of the exercise
- Set – is the number of continuous repetitions of a specific exercise
- Rest Interval – the amount of time allowed between sets for recovery
3. Components of Health-Related Fitness
Cardiorespiratory – Muscle Endurance – Muscle Strength – Flexibility – Body Composition
Cardiorespiratory – the efficiency of heart, lungs and blood vessels to supply muscles with oxygen and remove waste products.
Muscle Endurance – the ability of muscles to sustain or repeat muscle contractions against resistance. The maximum that can be lifted for 1 repetition is the RM. This type of training consists of many reps (9-25) against a relatively light load (40-75% RM) for 2-5 sets with a minimum rest of about 1 minute between sets. This type of program is used for general toning and sport specific training to reduce fatigue during long periods of activity.
Muscle Strength – the maximum force that a muscle can exert when making a single contraction. The best way to train for strength is to use 1-5 reps of a near maximal load (90% RM). Rest intervals should be longer at 1-3 minutes. This type of training is recommended for hypertrophy.
Flexibility – the range of motion of movement possible at a particular joint or series of joints.
Body Composition – the ratio of fat to muscle, bone and other tissues that compose the body
4. Advantages of Muscular Fitness
A) Maintain good posture
B) Prevent/correct curvature of the spine (80% of back pain is from weak abdominal muscles)
C) Fit muscles protect from joint injury
D) Fit muscles are resistant to aches, pains and injury