Safety Elements in the Weight Room

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  • Never lift alone
  • Ensure area is clear of obstacles/clutter
  • Inspect equipment and safety clips before proceeding
  • Wear proper clothing and footwear – tie up hair, remove jewelry
  • No horseplay (pushing, shoving, running about)
  • Use progressive weight advancement (start low)

– First 6-7 repetitions are relatively easy, but the last 3 are a challenge!

  • Concentrate on form and technique (do not talk while lifting/lowering).
  • Lift and lower SLOWLY – should never hear masses slamming down – focus on smooth controlled motion with a slight pause at each end of a movement
  • Alternate on machines in partners, be considerate of those waiting on you
  • Breathe out on a lift, and in when lowering – never hold your breathe

Stop if you feel dizzy or light-headed – you might drop the weight and hurt yourself or someone else!

When do we get stronger?

  • A muscle will be strengthened when it is forced to operate beyond its normal intensity level (this means you have overloaded it)
    • Hypertrophy will result – this means the muscle will increase in size

Increasing the Challenge

A) increase the resistance (more weight)

B) increase the # repetitions

C) increase the # sets

D) increase the intensity (reduce recovery time)

How much weight?

Generally, the maximum weight a person can lift is referred to as the one repetition maximum (1RM).  Loads are calculated as a percentage of the 1RM and strength training occurs in the range of 60-100% of the 1RM.  Examples of the load to number of recommended reps are listed below.

Percentage of 1RM Number of Repetitions
60 17
70 12
80 8
90 5
100 1

Weight Training Theory

1.  A good physical warm-up should elevate the body’s temperature.  It is generally recommended that a light, easy exercise (jogging, skipping) precede flexibility exercises (stretching), as a warm muscles stretch more easily than cold ones.  A good warm-up will improve performance and will lessen the possibility of injury.

Samuel Huntington: Biography & Theory

2. Terminology

  • Load – the amount of resistance placed on the muscle (the weight)
  • Repetition – each repetition is a single complete action of the exercise
  • Set – is the number of continuous repetitions of a specific exercise
  • Rest Interval – the amount of time allowed between sets for recovery

3. Components of Health-Related Fitness

Cardiorespiratory – Muscle Endurance – Muscle Strength – Flexibility – Body Composition

Cardiorespiratory – the efficiency of heart, lungs and blood vessels to supply muscles with oxygen and remove waste products.

Muscle Endurance – the ability of muscles to sustain or repeat muscle contractions against resistance.  The maximum that can be lifted for 1 repetition is the RM.  This type of training consists of many reps (9-25) against a relatively light load (40-75% RM) for   2-5 sets with a minimum rest of about 1 minute between sets.  This type of program is used for general toning and sport specific training to reduce fatigue during long periods of activity.

Muscle Strength – the maximum force that a muscle can exert when making a single contraction.  The best way to train for strength is to use 1-5 reps of a near maximal load (90% RM).  Rest intervals should be longer at 1-3 minutes.  This type of training is recommended for hypertrophy.

Flexibility – the range of motion of movement possible at a particular joint or series of joints.

Body Composition – the ratio of fat to muscle, bone and other tissues that compose the body

4.  Advantages of Muscular Fitness

A) Maintain good posture

B) Prevent/correct curvature of the spine (80% of back pain is from weak abdominal muscles)

C) Fit muscles protect from joint injury

D) Fit muscles are resistant to aches, pains and injury

Cite this article as: William Anderson (Schoolworkhelper Editorial Team), "Weight Training Information & Theory," in SchoolWorkHelper, 2019,
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