• The Cold War Intensifies (327)
  • August 29th, 1949: Soviet Union detonates
  • an atomic bomb at a test site in Siberia
    • Military balance shifts: both sides in the Cold War have nuclear weapons
    • This triggers an arms race to develop more powerful thermonuclear weapons (hydrogen bombs)
  • 1952: United States detonates world’s first
  • hydrogen bomb
  • 1953: Soviets detonate thermonuclear bomb
  • October 1, 1949: Chinese communists (led by
  • Mao Zedong) win civil war against Chinese
  • Nationalists
  • -Mao establishes a communist regime:
    • “The People’s Republic of China”
    • The Nationalists flee to Taiwan claiming to be the legitimate Chinese government
    • -The US:
      • Demands that NATO does not recognize the communist government in China (most nations comply until the late 60s)
      • Demands that the Taiwan government represents China at all United Nations councils
      • Provides financial and military aid to Taiwan to prevent attacks from China
      • Anti-Communism (328)
      • Gouzenko affair confirms anti-communist fears in North America
      • In the US, anti-communist investigations are led by Senetor Joseph McCarthy (McCarthyism)
  • In Canada:
    • RCMP secretly investigates potential “commies”
    • Immigrants believed to be communists or sympathizers are denied entry into Canada
    • Known communists are deported or denied to visit Canada
    • The Korean War (328)
    • Korea taken over by Japan in early 1900s
    • After WWII Soviet occupied Northern part of Korea and put in a communist gov’t
    • American troops occupied South
    • June 1950: North Korea invaded South Korea
    • Americans view this as an act of communist agression
    • US orders an emergency meeting of the UN Security Council – take action (Soviets boycott to protest China not being recognized)
    • Ordered N.Korea to withdraw…UN members to send military forces (under American command)
    • Canada sent one infantry brigade, 8 naval destroyers, air squadron, 27 000 soldiers
    • 1951:Princess Patricia’s Light Infantry won praise—they were outnumbered 8-1, spent 3 days in hand-hand fighting, but held on and won Battle of Kapyong, preventing Seoul (capital) from falling
    • 516 Canadians were killed in Korean War, over 1000 wounded
    • Showed world Canada was prepared to take a responsible role in UN
    • Korean War ended in 1953 with a truce
    • War did not succeed in uniting the 2 Koreas

  • Suez Canal Crisis (329)
  • 1956: Egypt (President Nasser) decided to take over the Suez Canal from British and French control
  • The Suez Canal (in Egypt) was vital in eastern trade-travel
  • Alarmed Israel, Britain, and France; they responded by attacking Egypt
  • Soviets threatened to send missiles to support Egypt
  • US warned they would step in if Soviet Union interfered
  • Lester B. Pearson (then Canadian Secretary for State for External Affairs), persuaded the UN General Assembly to order all foreign troops out of Egypt
  • He convinced UN to set up a United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF)-an international police force to keep peace b/w rival armies
  • The force would not fight unless attacked; observe, investigate, mediate, report back to UN General Assembly
  • Composed of 6000 soldiers; 1000 were Canadian
  • Major-General Burns of Canada commanded UN force
  • Egypt, Israel, Britain, and France obeyed the ceasefire
  • UNEF succeeded in bringing peace to region
  • Pearson was awarded Nobel Peace Prize in 1957
  • The Nuclear Arms Race (330
  • By the mid 1950s, the US and Soviets had huge stockpiles of newer, larger and more deadly weapons (H-Bombs)
  • H-Bombs were 40x more powerful than A-Bombs
  • Canada was stuck in the middle: geographically, it was between the Soviet Union and the US
  • The DEW line was along the Arctic coastline
  • Consisted of 3 radar stations able to detect and intercept flights from Soviet bombers
  • A larger system called the North American Air Defence (NORAD) was built in 1957
  • PM John Diefenbaker reluctantly agreed
  • Increased defence co-operation between Canada and the US
  • Main headquarters in Colorado (US) and North Bay, Ontario
  • 56 Bomarcs (anti-aircraft winged missile) equipped with nuclear warheads were stationed at NORAD sites
  • Diefenbaker accepted the Bomarcs, American made missiles for Canadian army in Europe, C-140 jetfighters for NATO squadrons – this showed Canada was willing to accept a strong role in NORAD and NATO
  • Diefenbaker did not accept American nuclear weapons to arm the missiles and aircraft of the Canadian Armed Forces – Many Canadians protested against the “nukes”
  • Preparing for the Bomb
  • Video: “Duck and Cover”
  • Bomb Shelters
  • Underground shelters are built across North America to protect citizens from nuclear fallout
  • Built in remote areas, under large buildings, and even in the basements of homes
  • 2400 were built in Toronto (cost $4000 each)
  • Bomb Shelters
  • The ideal shelter had to provide protection from the impact of the falling bomb and from firestorms
  • It needed its own supply of fresh air and water, as supplies from the outside would be contaminated
  • Thousands of Canadians built some sort of shelter, usually in their basements
  • They stocked up on canned food and bottled water in their car trunks or cellars
  • Nuclear Holocaust Activity
  • Doomsday Clock
  • Sputnik (331)
  • 1957: Soviet Union uses a ballistic rocket to launch the first human-made earth satellite “Sputnik”
  • Proved the Soviets could use missiles to send nuclear weapons deep into the American heartland
  • Both superpowers work to make even bigger missiles
  • The Berlin Wall
  • 1961: The Berlin Wall (barbed wire barricade and concrete wall, 155km long, 3.6m high) is constructed
  • Life in West Germany (democratic) was better than East Germany (communist) because the West received financial aid through the Marshall Plan.
  • In 1952, the border between the East and West was closed by the East German government making it more difficult to “escape” to the West.
  • Between 1949 and 1961, it is estimated that 2.6 million East Germans escaped to West Berlin.
  • The construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961
  • The Berlin Wall in 1986
    • The Cuban Missile Crisis (331)
    • October 1962: Dangerously close to nuclear war
    • Cuba=communist; near US; Soviets installed missiles in Cuba
    • Khrushchev (USSR) felt US would invade Cuba and harm the spread of communism
    • US demanded missiles be removed; blockaded Soviet Ships
    • End of October, JFK (US) reached agreement with Soviet
    • Soviets dismantle
    • US won’t invade Cuba and would remove warheads in Turkey
    • US asked Canada to put forces on alert; Diefenbaker hesitated, causing a deep rift; Bomarcs still not armed with warheads
    • Diefenbaker accused the US of pressuring Canada
    • 1963- Pearson becomes PM; arms Bomarc missiles with nuclear warheads
  • The Cold War Winds Down (345-6)
  • In the 60s and 70s, the Cold War enters a period of détente (a relaxing of tensions between nations)
  • A direct “hotline” is setup between the US and the Soviet Union to ensure that a nuclear war is not sparked by a “misunderstanding”
  • 1963: The US and the Soviet Union sign a nuclear-test-ban treaty
  • A series of arms limitations talks begin aimed at disarmament.
  • By 1979, the US and Soviet Union signed two arms limitation treaties which set limits on the types of nuclear arms they can have/use
  • However, this was not the end of the Cold War
  • Instead of fighting with eachother, the US and Soviet Union lend military support to other countries engaged in struggles between communism and democratic capitalism (Vietnam, Asia, Africa)
  • Proxy Wars: Wars between nations that are not fought within their borders, but in the territories of other nations, often by supporting various factions in those other nation’s wars.
  • Sports become an extension of the Cold War (Canada vs USSR becomes Cold War on Ice)
  • Foreign aid used as a weapon during proxy wars

  • 1979: Cold War Heats Up Again
    • Soviets place 350 missiles in Eastern Europe
    • US announces plan to put cruise missiles in Western Europe
    • Soviets invade Afghanistan (Canada, US and other Western countries boycott 1980 Moscow Olympics – USSR then boycotts 1984 Los Angeles Olympics)
    • 1981: US President Ronald Reagan speaks out against the Soviet Union “evil empire”
    • Reagan speaks about ways of “winning” a nuclear war and announces a $180 billion increase in defence spending
    • Reagan proposes the “Strategic Defense Initiative” (SDI) nicknamed “Star Wars”
    • Space based technology intended to destroy Soviet missiles attacking the US
    • The Cold War Ends (346)
    • In the 1980s, Mikhail Gorbachev (the new leader of the Soviet Union) attempts to make economic and political reforms (make it more like the West)
    • Gorbachev loosened the Soviet hold over the Warsaw Pact nations
    • 1989: Much of the Iron Curtain collapsed.
    • The Berlin Wall was torn down
    • Communist control in East Germany melted away
    • East Germany reunified with West Germany
    • Many other communist states (Poland, Czecholovakia, Baltic States) replace communist governments with democratic ones
    • 1991: Soviet Union broken into 15 smaller states.
    • With the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Cold War Ended.
    • When TIME sent photographer Anthony Suau to cover the opening of the border between East and West Berlin in 1989, this is what he observed.

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