Planes of the Body

  • ~ 200 bones in the body
  • Supports the muscles
  • Three other vital functions:
  • Protection
  • Blood-cell production
  • Mineral Storage


  • Protect organs in the body (i.e. the skull protects the brain and the ribs protect the lungs)

Blood-Cell Production

  • In the bone marrow they produce blood cells (red, white and plasma) and release them into the blood stream

Mineral Storage

  • Your bones store large amounts of calcium and phosphorus
  • These minerals are responsible for your bones’ strength and rigidity
  • When your diet lacks calcium, your bones dissolves calcium into your blood stream, which will ultimately weaken them


  • There are 4 parts that make up bones
  • Periosteum
  • Compact Bone
  • Spongy Bone
  • Bone Marrow


  • Is a tough membrane that covers bones

Compact Bone

  • Contains living bone cells , Osteocytes
  • These bone cells are hard and dense

Spongy Bones

  • Is porous  and less dense
  • Holds the bone marrow

Bone Marrow

  • Soft spongy  material
  • Contains immature stem cells that develop into blood cells


  • Supports force of bone of bone impact (i.e. the knee)
  • When we are born are bones begin as cartilage and as we grow it is replaced by compact bone
  • This process occurs into the late teens and early 20’s


  • Allow for movement
  • There are 4 types of joints
  • Ball and socket – shoulder
  • Pivot – elbow
  • Gliding – vertebrae
  • Hinge – Knee


  • Strong bands of connective tissue that can stretch
  • They hold bones together (i.e. Femur and tibia and fibula)

Muscular System

  • There are 3 types of muscle
    • Cardiac Muscles
    • This is the muscle that makes the heart beat and it is only found in the heart!
    • Controlled by the heart’s electrical impulse

Smooth Muscle

  • Is found in the lining of organs such as the stomach, small intestine and arteries
  • Controlled automatically by the brain

Muscular System

  • There are 3 types of muscle
    • Skeletal Muscle
    • These are attached to bones
    • Controlled conscious control
    • Muscles are connected to bones via tendons

Antagonist Muscle Groups

  • Most skeletal muscles are in pairs that work against each other
  • When one is contracted the other one is relaxed
  • i.e. biceps and triceps
  • These paired muscles move the joints
  • The muscle the beds the joint is called a flexor
  • The muscle that straightens the joint is called an extensor

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