What is Sociology?

Coined by Auguste Comte (1798-1857), meaning the study of society- socius (being with others) ology (the study of) Henslin et al: “simply put, sociology is the discipline study of human social behaviour, especially the investigation of the origins, classifications, institutions, and development of human society on a global level” “the systematic study of social behaviour…

What is Feminism: Ideology & History

Key Ideas Many types of feminism (listed by Trimble) Key concepts: “sex”, “gender”, “masculine” and “feminine” Sex: biological, physiological, Gender: social construction of roles humans sexed male and female “Determine a person’s social, economic, cultural, and political status” Constructed discursively & materially One gender is valued or superior More than 2 genders (more than 2…

Socialism: Ideas, History, Marxism

Key Ideas Many ideologies linked together by similar ideas drawn mainly from Karl Marx’s critique of capitalism Marxism Social Democracy Socialism Marxist-Leninism Anarchism Syndicalism Stalinism Maoism Feminism Reform liberalism *Note: there is no communist ideology, economy, etc.! Oppose capitalism because it is neither free nor just Capitalism is an unjust, exploitative economic system, thus generating…

What is a Self? (Aristotle)

Self Affects (affectivity, emotions) Own (property) Perceptions Knowledge Centre (ego, “I”) Aristotle’s Thesis: There is no modern sense of self; rather there is a soul that perceives, thinks, and nourishes. [the soul must be in common, public, and justified] Background to Aristotle (384 – 322 BCE) Macedonia Tutor of Alexander the Great Life separated into…

Understanding the Theories of Attraction and Mate Selection

Theory Who? Main Concepts Relationships Related Theoretical Perspective Natural Selection Evolutionary psychologists -women prefer to mate with men who would be good fathers and who would stay around to be good providers -men preferred to mate with women who could bear healthy babies who could feed their children -could apply to any given relationship; especially…

Growth and Development Theory: URIE BRONFENBRENNER (1917-2005)

Urie Bronfenbrenner founded the Ecological Systems Theory to understand the complex relationship between the infant, the family, and society and how they impact child development. The Ecological Systems Theory influenced the way psychologists and other social scientists approached the study of human beings in their environment. Before Bronfenbrenner, child psychologists studied the child, sociologists examined…

Growth and Development Theory: ARNOLD GESELL (1880 – 1961)

Prior to the early twentieth century, scientific observations of children were not common.  Arnold Gesell was one of the first psychologists to systematically describe children’s physical, social, and emotional achievements through a quantitative study of human development from birth through adolescence. He focused his research on the extensive study of a small number of children.…

Intellectual Development Theory: MARIA MONTESSORI (1870-1952)

§  Maria Montessori pioneered the Montessori educational method which is a child-centered, alternative education method based on her theories of child development. §  The method is primarily applied in preschool and elementary school settings, and it emphasizes self-directed activity on the part of the child, and observation on the part of the teacher. §  The…