States of Consciousness

Consciousness – our moment to moment awareness of ourselves and our environment Has various characteristics: Subjective and Private – reality and experience depend on the individual Dynamic – consciousness experiences are ever-changing and a continuous flow of mental activity Self-reflective and Central to Our Sense of Self – mind is aware of its own consciousness…

Sensation and Perception

Sensation – the stimulus-detection process by which our sense organs respond to and translate environmental stimuli into nerve impulses that are sent to the brain Perception – active process of organizing the stimulus input and giving it meaning Sensory Processes Stimulus detection – absolute threshold designated as the lowest intensity at which a stimulus can…

Psychology: The Science of Behaviour

Psychology = The scientific study of behaviour and the factors that influence it. Taking into account Biological, Individual and Environmental factors. Basic and Applied Science Two types of research: Basic research: Knowledge gained purely for its own sake. The goals are to describe how people behave and to identify factors that influence it. Research maybe…

Statistics in Psychology: Variance, Deviation

Descriptive Statistics: Summarizes and describes characteristics of a set of scores for a group Frequency Distribution: # of people who received each score Histogram: frequency distribution turned into graph. Measure of central tendency: mean (average), median (middle), mode (most often) Measure of variability: provide info about spread of scores (i.e range) (highest- lowest) least informative…

Psychology Study Methods, Research, Validity

Key scientific attitudes: Curiosity, skepticism, open-mindedness Hindsight: explaining behavior after the fact (problem: multiple conflicting outcomes and explanations for results) Use Scientific Process with variables and factual observations Scientific Process: Formulate a question based on observed events Formulate a tentative explanation for why those event transpired (hypothesis) Conduct research to test it Analyze research and…

WHY DO PEOPLE TRAVEL? TRAVEL MOTIVATORS

PERSONAL Curiosity, desire to learn about an area, enhance self esteem, stress relief (need to get away), improve health, recreation Ex. Weekend Getaway ENVIRONMENTAL Desire to experience different landscapes, check out different types of wildlife, enjoy outdoor experiences Ex. Safari CULTURAL Desire to explore art, history, food, religion, language, etc., may be something from your…

Eating Disorder: Bulimia Nervosa

Definition An eating disorder characterized by massive food binges followed by purging or other compensating behaviours to try and rid the body of unwanted calories. Characteristics Uncontrollable eating in excess followed by self-induced vomiting or misuse of diuretics and laxatives, fasting or excessive exercise to avoid weight gain. Feelings of guilt and shame, which lead…

Eating Disorder: Binge-Eating Disorder

Definition An eating disorder characterized by massive food binges (similar to Bulimia Nervosa) without the purging or other compensating behaviours. Characteristics Periods of eating compulsively and consuming large quantities of food until the individual is uncomfortably full, followed by feelings of guilt and shame which lead to secretive eating. Use food as a way to…

Tips for Staying Healthy: Losing Fat & Gaining Muscle

Practice Healthy Eating Habits One of the good points about many of the popular low carbohydrate diets is that they draw attention to the quality of the carbohydrates that we’re eating. Most Americans are choosing lots of refined, sugary, calorie-rich (but nutrient-poor) carbohydrates like soda, candy, white bread products, white rice, and processed french fried…

Herbert Marcuse: One-Dimensional Man

Herbert Marcuse (1898-1979) Socialist philosopher and German-Jew that fled World War II Germany and immigrated to the USA Wrote One-Dimensional Man to explain why widespread communist revolution had not happened One-Dimensional Man (1964) Capitalism uses advertising, consumerism, mass media, entertainment industry as a means of social control- produces conformity in what people desire, think Created…

The Communist Manifesto (1848): Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels

The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles. Freeman and slave, patrician and plebeian, lord and serf, guild master and journeyman, in a word, oppressor and oppressed, stood in constant opposition to one another, carried on…a fight that each time ended either in a revolutionary reconstruction of society at large…

What is Conservatism?

Conservatism is a preference for the historically inherited rather than the abstract and ideal. Believes society should be rooted in long-standing traditions and its institutions should reflect those traditions Why conservatives believe this: Movement began as a response to the French Revolution (1789)- people of France replaced monarchy with new forms of gov’t, resulting in…

Definitions of Philosophy

Philosophy is… …Seeking after wisdom or knowledge, esp. that which deals with  ultimate reality, or with the most general causes or principles of things and ideas and human perception and knowledge of them, physical phenomena (natural philosophy) and ethics (moral philosophy)- Concise Oxford Dictionary …An activity- the attempt to understand the general principles and ideas…

Existentialism & Jean-Paul Sartre: Sartre and Kant on Ethics

Existentialism: a philosophical movement that focuses on individual autonomy and the necessity of making reasoned decisions for oneself. Jean-Paul Sartre, (1905-1980) French author and philosopher Best-known proponent of humanistic existentialism Marxist advocate of political causes French resistance fighter of WWII Winner of the Nobel Prize for literature Sartre was an atheist who believed that human…

Friedrich Nietzsche: Beyond Good and Evil

Nietzsche attacked traditional ethical theories, especially those rooted in religion. He rejected the view that people are ultimately accountable only to God. He did so because he believed that human life had no moral purpose except for the meaning that human beings gave it. Nietzsche was extremely critical of most traditional ethics. He called Utilitarianism…

Ethical Relativism: Ethics that Depend on Culture

Ethical Relativism: there are no common, universal, or objective values. Moral values are developed by individual peoples, groups, or cultures to fit their unique conditions. Relativists say that all moral rules are equally acceptable, because there is no way of judging between them. They do believe in moral right and wrong, but they do not…