Types of Reasoning & Stages of Problem Solving

Two types of reasoning: Deductive reasoning – reasoning from a general principle to a specific case Basis of formal mathematics and logic Viewed as stronger and more valid reasoning because conclusion cannot be false if premises are true Syllogism: If all humans are mortal (first premise), and Socrates is a human (second premise), then Socrates…

Language: History and Structure

Language: History and Structure Language – a system of symbols and rules for combining these symbols in ways that can produce an almost infinite number of possible messages and meanings Three critical properties of language: Symbolic: Uses sounds, written signs, or gestures to refer to objects, events, ideas, and feelings Displacement – capacity of language…

Memory: Storing & Accessing Information

Memory – processes that allow us to record and later retrieve experiences and information Memory as Information Processing Encoding – getting information into the system by translating into a neural code that your brain processes Storage – retaining information over time Retrieval – the process of accessing information in long term memory Three-Component Model Three…

Learning: Classical Conditioning & Operant Conditioning

Learning – process by which experience produces a relatively enduring change in an organism’s behaviour or capabilities Adapting to the Environment Behaviourists focus on how organisms learn, examining the processes by which the experience influences behaviour Ethology focuses on the functions of behaviour Adaptive significance – how behaviour influences an organism’s chances for survival Fixed…

States of Consciousness

Consciousness – our moment to moment awareness of ourselves and our environment Has various characteristics: Subjective and Private – reality and experience depend on the individual Dynamic – consciousness experiences are ever-changing and a continuous flow of mental activity Self-reflective and Central to Our Sense of Self – mind is aware of its own consciousness…

Sensation and Perception

Sensation – the stimulus-detection process by which our sense organs respond to and translate environmental stimuli into nerve impulses that are sent to the brain Perception – active process of organizing the stimulus input and giving it meaning Sensory Processes Stimulus detection – absolute threshold designated as the lowest intensity at which a stimulus can…

Psychology: The Science of Behaviour

Psychology = The scientific study of behaviour and the factors that influence it. Taking into account Biological, Individual and Environmental factors. Basic and Applied Science Two types of research: Basic research: Knowledge gained purely for its own sake. The goals are to describe how people behave and to identify factors that influence it. Research maybe…

Statistics in Psychology: Variance, Deviation

Descriptive Statistics: Summarizes and describes characteristics of a set of scores for a group Frequency Distribution: # of people who received each score Histogram: frequency distribution turned into a graph. The measure of central tendency: mean (average), median (middle), mode (most often) The measure of variability: provide info about the spread of scores (i.e range)…

Psychology Study Methods, Research, Validity

Key scientific attitudes: Curiosity, skepticism, open-mindedness Hindsight: explaining behavior after the fact (problem: multiple conflicting outcomes and explanations for results) Use Scientific Process with variables and factual observations Scientific Process: Formulate a question based on observed events Formulate a tentative explanation for why those event transpired (hypothesis) Conduct research to test it Analyze research and…

WHY DO PEOPLE TRAVEL? TRAVEL MOTIVATORS

PERSONAL Curiosity, desire to learn about an area, enhance self esteem, stress relief (need to get away), improve health, recreation Ex. Weekend Getaway ENVIRONMENTAL Desire to experience different landscapes, check out different types of wildlife, enjoy outdoor experiences Ex. Safari CULTURAL Desire to explore art, history, food, religion, language, etc., may be something from your…

Eating Disorder: Bulimia Nervosa

Definition An eating disorder characterized by massive food binges followed by purging or other compensating behaviours to try and rid the body of unwanted calories. Characteristics Uncontrollable eating in excess followed by self-induced vomiting or misuse of diuretics and laxatives, fasting or excessive exercise to avoid weight gain. Feelings of guilt and shame, which lead…

Eating Disorder: Binge-Eating Disorder

Definition An eating disorder characterized by massive food binges (similar to Bulimia Nervosa) without the purging or other compensating behaviours. Characteristics Periods of eating compulsively and consuming large quantities of food until the individual is uncomfortably full, followed by feelings of guilt and shame which lead to secretive eating. Use food as a way to…

Tips for Staying Healthy: Losing Fat & Gaining Muscle

Practice Healthy Eating Habits One of the good points about many of the popular low carbohydrate diets is that they draw attention to the quality of the carbohydrates that we’re eating. Most Americans are choosing lots of refined, sugary, calorie-rich (but nutrient-poor) carbohydrates like soda, candy, white bread products, white rice, and processed french fried…