Existentialism & Jean-Paul Sartre: Sartre and Kant on Ethics

Existentialism: a philosophical movement that focuses on individual autonomy and the necessity of making reasoned decisions for oneself. Jean-Paul Sartre, (1905-1980) French author and philosopher Best-known proponent of humanistic existentialism Marxist advocate of political causes French resistance fighter of WWII Winner of the Nobel Prize for literature Sartre was an atheist who believed that human…

Friedrich Nietzsche: Beyond Good and Evil

Nietzsche attacked traditional ethical theories, especially those rooted in religion. He rejected the view that people are ultimately accountable only to God. He did so because he believed that human life had no moral purpose except for the meaning that human beings gave it. Nietzsche was extremely critical of most traditional ethics. He called Utilitarianism…

Ethical Relativism: Ethics that Depend on Culture

Ethical Relativism: there are no common, universal, or objective values. Moral values are developed by individual peoples, groups, or cultures to fit their unique conditions. Relativists say that all moral rules are equally acceptable, because there is no way of judging between them. They do believe in moral right and wrong, but they do not…

Modern Theories of Truth: Correspondence Theory, Coherence Theory, Pragmatism

Correspondence Theory Best known, most widely used conception of truth Maintains there is a relationship (correspondence) between people’s internal beliefs and realities in the external world (truth means agreement between thought and reality) Belief is true if it agrees with fact or coincides with the physical world or objective reality Truth claims should be checked…

The Three Major Forms of Inductive Reasoning

Inductive Generalization uses specific examples to draw general conclusions. People use inductive generalizations to observe situational patterns which they project on new cases. What pattern do you see in the following premises? Premise: In the 1950s, one out of five households in North Bay had a television set. Premise: In the 1970s, four out of…

Thomas Kuhn: Science and Progress

He does not believe that science proceeds from one advancement to another, in an even and unbroken process. Kuhn’s view is that scientists work within an unquestioned theory or set of beliefs: Mental Paradigm This mental paradigm (accepted view) shapes scientists’ thinking as they work. Within this set of beliefs, scientists search for information and…

Socrates, Plato and Aristotle

Socrates 470-399 B.C,- NEVER wrote anything Gave philosophy its preeminent method- Socratic method or questioning (form of inquiry and debate between individuals with opposing viewpoints based on asking and answering questions to stimulate rational thinking and to illuminate ideas) Believed knowledge does not come from memorizing facts & repeating them True wisdom comes from being…

Jean Piegat: Biography & Theory of Cognitive Development

Developed a theory about childhood development that still greatly influences behavioural psychologist and educators today. Biography: -born in 1896-1980 in Neuchatel -attended the University of Neuchatel -received a PhD in Natural Science -Moved to Paris, France to teach at an all boy school -Here was what led him to his theory that young children’s cognitive…

Karl Marx: Theories, Research, Biography

Karl Marx was an economist, revolutionary and a sociologist, amongst other occupations. Moving around Germany, France and finally England, he developed his theories and ideas that would lead him to attempt a revolution to overthrow the capitalist system. Despite being close to starting one such revolution, it quickly dissipated when it lost support. He wrote…

What is Adaptation? Types of Adaptations

Change in an organisms physical structure or behaviour that improves its ability to survive in their habitat Anything that helps an organism survives in its environment is an adaptation Adaptation also refers to organisms’ ability to adjust to various conditions within its environment Examples: change in size of birds beak, development of sharp teeth and…