Psychology Theorists: Lev Vygotsky, Robert Coles, Carol Gilligan

Lev Vygotsky (1896 – 1934) Vygotsky’s basic premise was that social interaction plays an important role in intellectual development The child’s development appears twice – first on the social level, then on an individual level He believed  skills develop to a higher level with adult guidance or peer collaboration (social interaction) His theory attempts to…

Social Learning Theory: ALBERT BANDURA (1925-)

Canadian, born in northern Alberta Behaviourism theory of the time stated that one’s environment causes one’s behaviour Bandura agreed that environment causes behaviour, but he also believed that behaviour causes environment – he labelled this “reciprocal determinism” – that the world and a person’s behaviour cause each other He studied personality as it interacted with…

Sigmund Freud and Psychosexual Development

Main Ideas: Sigmund Freud believed that hidden forces are the cause of human behavior, rather than the obvious forces. Unconscious thoughts reveal themselves in something called the free association, such as dreams where you talk and think freely. He believed that personality consists of three major systems. The Structure of Personality: id- this starts at…

Lawrence Kohlberg: The Six Stages of Moral Development

Kohlberg’s six stage theory was an extension of Jean Piaget’s cognitive development theory (how people learn and use knowledge is affected by both social and psychological factors). Kohlberg extended on Piaget’s theory, proposing that moral development is a continual process that occurs throughout the lifespan (the stage you are in life determines your level of…

Erik Erikson and the 8 Stages of Development

Ÿ  Erikson’s theories are the best-known theories of personality and development. Ÿ  Erikson believed that personality develops in a series of predetermined stages. Ÿ  His theories are psychosocial, and not psychosexual. Ÿ  Describes the impact of social experience across the whole lifespan. Ÿ  In each stage of development, Erikson described conflicts that act as turning…

Types of Reasoning & Stages of Problem Solving

Two types of reasoning: Deductive reasoning – reasoning from a general principle to a specific case Basis of formal mathematics and logic Viewed as stronger and more valid reasoning because conclusion cannot be false if premises are true Syllogism: If all humans are mortal (first premise), and Socrates is a human (second premise), then Socrates…

Language: History and Structure

Language: History and Structure Language – a system of symbols and rules for combining these symbols in ways that can produce an almost infinite number of possible messages and meanings Three critical properties of language: Symbolic: Uses sounds, written signs, or gestures to refer to objects, events, ideas, and feelings Displacement – capacity of language…

Memory: Storing & Accessing Information

Memory – processes that allow us to record and later retrieve experiences and information Memory as Information Processing Encoding – getting information into the system by translating into a neural code that your brain processes Storage – retaining information over time Retrieval – the process of accessing information in long term memory Three-Component Model Three…

Learning: Classical Conditioning & Operant Conditioning

Learning – process by which experience produces a relatively enduring change in an organism’s behaviour or capabilities Adapting to the Environment Behaviourists focus on how organisms learn, examining the processes by which the experience influences behaviour Ethology focuses on the functions of behaviour Adaptive significance – how behaviour influences an organism’s chances for survival Fixed…