Disarmament treaties: The Washington Four Power Treaty and Naval convention 1922

The United States had rejected joining the League of Nations, leaving the growing conflicts of Anglo-American naval rivalry and worsening American-Japanese relations in the Pacific to be dealt in other ways. By 1919, the USA became alarmed at the rise of Japanese power in the Pacific. By this time, the Japanese had the 3rd largest…

Challenges of Peace-Making 1991-2008: Israelis & Palestinians

Israeli-Palestinian Peace Agreement 1993 1974: Yasser Arafat and other moderate PLO leaders hinted that they were ready to consider a mini-state for Palestinians, majority of which lived in West Bank and Gaza 1974: Arafat’s speech to UN, said that Palestinian problem was about people who are struggling with life. Main goal was to bring sympathy…

Marshall Plan: Historical Significance

(April 1948–December 1951), U.S.-sponsored program designed to rehabilitate the economies of 17 western and southern European countries in order to create stable conditions in which democratic institutions could survive. On June 5, 1947, in an address at Harvard University, Secretary of State George C. Marshall advanced the idea of a European self-help program to be…

Peace Treaties: St. Germain, Trianon, Neuilly, Sevres, Versailles

Treaty of St. Germain Officially signed on September 10, 1919 and came into force on July 16, 1920. The treaty officially registered the breakup of the Habsburg Empire, recognizing the independence of Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, and the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (Yugoslavia) and ceding eastern Galicia, Trento, southern Tirol, Trieste, and Istria.…

League of Nations: Enforcement of Treaties & Sanctions

The secretariat of the League was divided into three main departments dealing with: Economic, financial and transit questions Social and humanitarian problems (health, drug traffic, child welfare, social work, refugees, intellectual collaboration); Legal and administrative questions (registration of international treaties, protection of minorities, mandates, slavery). The League had four ways to enforce the provisions of…

The Palestinian Problem: YASSER ARAFAT, War in Lebanon, Palestinian Intifada

YASSER  ARAFAT He was born on 24 August 1929 in Cairo, Died in 2004. In 1958 Arafat and his friends founded Al-Fatah, an underground network of secret cells, which in 1959 began to publish a magazine advocating armed struggle against Israel. At the end of 1964 Arafat became a full-time revolutionary, organising Fatah raids into…

The Suez Crisis (1956): Gamal Abdul Nasser & Arab-Israeli War 1967

Leadership of Gamal Abdul Nasser, President of Egypt from 1954 to 1970 Biography Was part of the Free Officers, a group of Egyptian officers plotting to overthrow the Egyptian government (early 1950s) July 1952, he helped overthrow the unpopular government In 1954, Nasser became President: his goal was to give Egypt true sovereignty by freeing…

Korean Wars: Historical Context, Events, Key Figures

Russo-Japanese War in 1904-1905 Japanese established authority over Korean peninsula Koreans fought for independence but the Western blocs did not intervene until the outbreak of war in the Pacific during WWII in 1941 Cairo Conference 1943 – Roosevelt, Churchill and Chiang Kai-노다 declared support to remove the Japanese from Korea “three great powers, mindful of…

Nikita Khrushchev: Cuban Missile Crisis & De-Stalinization

Collective Leadership 1953 After Stalin’s death, the party leaders wanted collective control so that no single leader could again dominate party and government. Following his death in March 1953, the collective leadership that emerged was made up of Malenkov (Soviet Premier), Molotov (Foreign Secretary), Bulganin (Deputy Premier), and Khrushchev (Party Secretary). The immediate problem they…