Battle of Dieppe & Operation Rutter & Operation Jubilee

Location: French Port of Dieppe (northern coast of France) Date: August 19, 1942 Nations involved: USA, Britain, Canada vs. Germany Key Figures: British Chief of Combined Operations – Louis Mountbatten, Canadian Major-General J.H. Roberts, German General Field Marshal– Gerd von Rundstedt Objectives: Allies wanted to test amphibious techniques and gather data on coastal defenses and…

Revolutionary Europe by James D. White Summary

The Roots if the Revolution: The Nationalities. The Russian Empire was “an unwieldy conglomeration of territories inhabited by a nationally variegated population…” (pg 174) By 1914, Russia was composed of 148.4 million people. 43.4% were Russians, 17.5% Ukrainians, 10.6% Turkish speaking people. Some people such as the Fins, Poles and the Jews had a strong…

Battle of Stalingrad: Strategy, Events, People

Location: Stalingrad, Southwestern Russia Date: July 17th, 1942- February 2nd, 1943 Nations Involved: Germany, Hungary, Italy, Romania, and Croatia vs. Soviet Union Strategy Relevant to the Battle Operation Blue: The plan was to concentrate all available forces in the southern flank of the long front, destroy the front line Russian forces there, and then advance…

New England Colonies

Name of Colony Date Founded Reason For Colony’s Establishment Founder Primary Economic Base Plymouth (Massachusetts) 1620 Separatists who desired to remain separate from the Anglican Church went to Plymouth William Bradford Agriculture(fishing, corn), Manufacturing (lumbering, shipbuilding) Salem (Massachusetts) 1630 English society was corrupt and as many people needed to be evacuated as possible John Winthrop…

Original Middle American Colonies

Name of Colony Date Founded Reason For Colony’s Establishment Founder Primary Economic Base New Jersey(New Netherlands) 1623 by Dutch, 1664 by English Originally settled by Dutch in 1623. Taken over by British. Proprietary grant made by Duke of York to George Carteret and Lord Berkeley English Colonists Manufacturing (ironworking, lumbering) New York (New Amsterdam) 1624…

Karl Marx & Freidrich Engels: Communist Manifesto

Karl Marx and Freidrich Engels were leading Prussian political theorists who developed Communism in the mid-19th century. Their most famous work, The Communist Manifesto was produced for the Communist League in 1848 in Brussels after Marx had been expelled from Prussia and France for his radical leftist beliefs. The Communist Manifesto argues that class struggles…

Greek Drama: Tragedy, Comedy, Playwrights

Origins of Tragedy Annual spring festival of the gods Dionysus, called the Great or City of Dionysia to distinguish between the lesser rural festivities for Dionysus Tragedy came into existence simultaneously with gradual transforming of Athens into democracy Arrangements of the festival lay in the hands of eponymous archon and choregoi, wealthy citizens were required…

Jean Jacques Rousseau: The Social Contract

Jean Jacques Rousseau, a French political philosopher, published The Social Contract in 1762, during the peak of the French Enlightenment.[1] Rousseau argued that no one person was entitled to have natural authority over others.[2] He continued his argument by suggesting that an agreement should be formed, in which all individuals give up their natural liberty…

Lev Kopelev: Terror in the Countryside (Holodomor)

In 1929 Joseph Stalin, the Communist leader, started a revolution that would transform the Soviet Union’s economy. A major aspect of the Stalin revolution consisted of forced collectivization of agriculture. From 1929-1933, the collectivization drive met resistance, resulting in the liquidation of an estimated five million successful peasants called Kulaks.[1] In 1978, Lev Kopelev published…