Industrial Revolutions of the 18th & 19th Centuries

The Industrial Revolutions of the 18th and 19th centuries produced many innovative thinkers, and industrialists. With their many contributions to the industrial process, these people made Western society, economically, socially and politically speaking, what it is today. However, the means by which this progress was made conflicted with the modern concept of morality. Workers were…

Edmund Burke & The Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790)

Edmund Burke, an Anglo-Irish political thinker and philosopher was the chief framer of conservatism.  His most influential work, Reflections on the Revolution in France, opposed the core values of his contemporary revolutionaries and predicted that the French Revolution would cause anarchy and bring about terror. Reflections, published in 1790, was written in the wake of…

The French Constitution & Directory: 1795–1799

The New National Convention National Convention after Robespierre was much more conservative than before – entrenched values of moderate middle class -> drastic change for once-powerful groups like sans-culottes and Jacobins who were forced underground (‘sans-culottes’ even became a derisive term) French economy struggled during winter of 1794–1795, with widespread hunger Convention worked hard to…