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Titration Lab: NaOH with Standardized solution of KHP

Aim To standardize a sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution against a primary standard acid [Potassium Hydrogen Phthalate (KHP)] using phenolphthalein as indicator. Variables Independent variables Mass of KHP (mKHP) Volume of KHP solution Dependent variables Volume of NaOH added [since the colour change will not happen at exactly the same volume of NaOH added (VNaOH)] Controlled…

Battle of Antietam & The Emancipation Proclamation

President Lincoln, shortly after the Battle of Antietam in September 17, 1862 in Maryland—where about 23,000 soldiers were killed or wounded and General Lee was rebound to Virginia providing a technical victory to Union’s army under Gen. McClellan—released the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation:, the decree warned that the seceded states which returned to Union control by…