Human Karyotyping

A karyotype is an organized profile of a person’s chromosomes. Chromosomes are arranged and numbered according to: – size, from largest to smallest – banding pattern, size and location of Giesma bands – centromere location, appear as a constriction This arrangement helps scientists quickly identify chromosomal alterations that may result in a genetic disorder. Karyotype…

Genetic Disorders: Causes

Mutations – any change in a gene that is accompanied by a loss or change in the functioning of the genetic information; many mutations are harmful – spontaneous mutations have no known cause; improper crossing over, DNA replication – induced mutations are caused by mutagens; radiation, chemicals, viruses Somatic Mutations – occur in regular body…

Enzymes: Structure and Function

Enzymes are specialized proteins that speed up chemical reactions (biological catalysts) Without enzymes, cellular chemical reactions could not occur fast enough to maintain life. Enzyme Activity: –      enzyme binds to the reactants, called the substrate(s), of a chemical reaction –      the substrate joins with the enzyme at the enzymes active site forming an enzyme-substrate complex…