Tutor and Freelance Writer. Science Teacher and Lover of Essays. Article last reviewed: 2020 | St. Rosemary Institution © 2010-2021 | Creative Commons 4.0

Hunger & Weight Regulation: The Physiology of Hunger

Metabolism – body’s rate of energy utilization Two-thirds of energy used goes to support basal metabolism, the resting, continuous metabolic work of body cells Immediate energy supply information interacts with other signals to regulate food intake (hunger not necessarily linked to immediate energy needs) Homeostatic mechanisms are designed to prevent people from running low on…

Types of Reasoning & Stages of Problem Solving

Two types of reasoning: Deductive reasoning – reasoning from a general principle to a specific case Basis of formal mathematics and logic Viewed as stronger and more valid reasoning because conclusion cannot be false if premises are true Syllogism: If all humans are mortal (first premise), and Socrates is a human (second premise), then Socrates…

Language: History and Structure

Language: History and Structure Language – a system of symbols and rules for combining these symbols in ways that can produce an almost infinite number of possible messages and meanings Three critical properties of language: Symbolic: Uses sounds, written signs, or gestures to refer to objects, events, ideas, and feelings Displacement – capacity of language…

Memory: Storing & Accessing Information

Memory – processes that allow us to record and later retrieve experiences and information Memory as Information Processing Encoding – getting information into the system by translating into a neural code that your brain processes Storage – retaining information over time Retrieval – the process of accessing information in long term memory Three-Component Model Three…

Learning: Classical Conditioning & Operant Conditioning

Learning – process by which experience produces a relatively enduring change in an organism’s behaviour or capabilities Adapting to the Environment Behaviourists focus on how organisms learn, examining the processes by which the experience influences behaviour Ethology focuses on the functions of behaviour Adaptive significance – how behaviour influences an organism’s chances for survival Fixed…

States of Consciousness

Consciousness – our moment to moment awareness of ourselves and our environment Has various characteristics: Subjective and Private – reality and experience depend on the individual Dynamic – consciousness experiences are ever-changing and a continuous flow of mental activity Self-reflective and Central to Our Sense of Self – mind is aware of its own consciousness…

Sensation and Perception

Sensation – the stimulus-detection process by which our sense organs respond to and translate environmental stimuli into nerve impulses that are sent to the brain Perception – active process of organizing the stimulus input and giving it meaning Sensory Processes Stimulus detection – absolute threshold designated as the lowest intensity at which a stimulus can…

Psychology: The Science of Behaviour

Psychology = The scientific study of behaviour and the factors that influence it. Taking into account Biological, Individual and Environmental factors. Basic and Applied Science Two types of research: Basic research: Knowledge gained purely for its own sake. The goals are to describe how people behave and to identify factors that influence it. Research maybe…

Brain: Imaging, Anatomy, Lateralization

Scores on neuropsychological tests show amount of damage done to person Destruction and Stimulation test: can destroy parts of the brain to see effect or stimulate nerves with electrodes  (Dr. Penfield- famous neuroscientists) – mapped motor and sensory areas Broca’s aphasia: could understand, but not speak Dorsal Stream: action (D.A) Ventral Stream: perception (V.P) Single-…

Brain Structure: Depolarization & Neurotransmitters

Neurons: constructive unit of the nervous system; interconnected like electrical circuits Made up of: Soma (cell body): contains nucleus, keeps nerve cells alive (grey matter) Dendrites: receiving portion of nerve cell- receiving end of cell Axon: sends impulses away from the cell (white matter) Dendrites and axons are all interconnected; vary in shape and size…

Statistics in Psychology: Variance, Deviation

Descriptive Statistics: Summarizes and describes characteristics of a set of scores for a group Frequency Distribution: # of people who received each score Histogram: frequency distribution turned into a graph. The measure of central tendency: mean (average), median (middle), mode (most often) The measure of variability: provide info about the spread of scores (i.e range)…

Psychology Study Methods, Research, Validity

Key scientific attitudes: Curiosity, skepticism, open-mindedness Hindsight: explaining behavior after the fact (problem: multiple conflicting outcomes and explanations for results) Use Scientific Process with variables and factual observations Scientific Process: Formulate a question based on observed events Formulate a tentative explanation for why those event transpired (hypothesis) Conduct research to test it Analyze research and…

Romeo & Juliet Act I, Scene 1 Analysis

Key players Sampson/Gregory: Servants to Capulet Abraham/Balthasar: Servants to Montague Benvolio: Nephew of Montague, Romeo’s friend Tybalt: Nephew of Lady Capulet Capulet: Head of household feuding with Montagues Lady Capulet: Wife of Capulet Prince (Escalus): Prince of Verona Montague: Head of household feuding with Capulets Lady Montague: Wife of Montague Romeo: Son of Montague Summary…