PROTEINS

Proteins in the human body have a wide range of functions which include: Hormones (insulin, testosterone), Muscle Fibers (actin, muasin), Carrier Protein (Oxygen carrying hemoglobin), Structure/ Support (nails/ hair), Enzymes (biological catalyst), Membrane Transport (Na/ K pump), Cell-to-Cell Recognition, Antibodies. Structure Proteins are polymers made up of amino acid subunits bonded together by peptide bonds.…

ORGANIC REACTIONS

To simplify the multitude of possible combinations of reactants, organic reactions fall under specific types. Combustion Substitution Addition Elimination Oxidation/reduction Condensation (dehydration synthesis) Hydrolysis (hydration) Polymerization Another tool to simplify your task of predicting products is to remember that functional groups will always react the same way. e.g. all 1o alcohols will react the same…

BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES

Biological molecules are macromolecules, which basically means they are polymers composed on small repeating units that have been covalently bonded together.  The exception to this is a type of lipid called triacyleglycerides or phospholipids which are relatively large molecules composed of smaller molecules bonded together. Subunits are chemically liked together in the cell by a…

Ancient Israel: History & Events

Ancient Israel is the birthplace of the 3 great monotheistic religions of the world:  Judaism, Christianity and Islam Ancient Israel dates back approximately 4000 years to the books of the Old TestamentGreat patriarchs of Judaism:  Abraham, Jacob, Moses, Joshua Hebrews, Israelites, Jews, Semites:  have all undergone persecution throughout history; from Babylonian Captivity, Exodus, Diaspora, Spanish…