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Snell’s Law Questions/ Answers

Indices of Refraction for Various Media: Medium Index of Refraction (n) Air/vacuum 1.00 Ice 1.31 Water 1.33 Ethyl alcohol 1.36 Vegetable oil 1.47 Acrylic 1.49 Glass 1.52 Diamond 2.42 1. Using Snell’s law, determine the constant when the angle of incidence and the angle of refraction are: a) 50˚ and 30˚                       b) 30˚ and 18˚                      …

PROTEINS

Proteins in the human body have a wide range of functions which include: Hormones (insulin, testosterone), Muscle Fibers (actin, muasin), Carrier Protein (Oxygen carrying hemoglobin), Structure/ Support (nails/ hair), Enzymes (biological catalyst), Membrane Transport (Na/ K pump), Cell-to-Cell Recognition, Antibodies. Structure Proteins are polymers made up of amino acid subunits bonded together by peptide bonds.…

ORGANIC REACTIONS

To simplify the multitude of possible combinations of reactants, organic reactions fall under specific types. Combustion Substitution Addition Elimination Oxidation/reduction Condensation (dehydration synthesis) Hydrolysis (hydration) Polymerization Another tool to simplify your task of predicting products is to remember that functional groups will always react the same way. e.g. all 1o alcohols will react the same…

Valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory

Valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory is a model in chemistry used to predict the shape of individual molecules based upon the extent of electron-pair electrostatic repulsion. It is also named Gillespie-Nyholm theory after its two main developers. The premise of VSEPR is that the valence electron pairs surrounding an atom mutually repel each…

Ancient Israel: History & Events

Ancient Israel is the birthplace of the 3 great monotheistic religions of the world:  Judaism, Christianity and Islam Ancient Israel dates back approximately 4000 years to the books of the Old TestamentGreat patriarchs of Judaism:  Abraham, Jacob, Moses, Joshua Hebrews, Israelites, Jews, Semites:  have all undergone persecution throughout history; from Babylonian Captivity, Exodus, Diaspora, Spanish…