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The Respiratory System: Structure and Function

Function supplies oxygen to cells and removes carbon dioxide defending the body against invasion of microorganisms control the body’s blood pH Components: Ventilation (breathing) > inhalation and exhalation; take in oxygen and dispose of carbon dioxide External Respiration > the exchange of gases between the alveoli and the blood Internal Respiration > exchange of gases…

Facilitated Diffusion & Active Transport

Facilitated Diffusion Allows diffusion of large, membrane insoluble compounds such as sugars (glucose) and amino acids Does not require energy (passive transport) Substance binds to membrane transport protein Molecules may enter the cell and leave the cell through the transport protein. Particles move from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration; diffuse Active…

Enzymes: Structure and Function

Enzymes are specialized proteins that speed up chemical reactions (biological catalysts) Without enzymes, cellular chemical reactions could not occur fast enough to maintain life. Enzyme Activity: –      enzyme binds to the reactants, called the substrate(s), of a chemical reaction –      the substrate joins with the enzyme at the enzymes active site forming an enzyme-substrate complex…

Classification Level: Kingdom

The table below lists the basic general characteristics that are used to differentiate between the different kingdoms. Criteria Kingdom Animals Plants Fungi Protists Archaebacteria Eubacteria Type of cells Eukaryotic Eukaryotic Eukaryotic Eukaryotic Prokaryotic Prokaryotic Cell wall None Yes (cellulose) Yes (chitin) None Yes (peptidoglycan) Yes Cell organization Multicellular Multicellular Multicellular Single celled Single celled Single…

Blood: Structure, Function, Components

Components: i) plasma ii) erythrocytes (red blood cells) iii) leukocytes (white blood cells) iv) platelets Plasma: o    55% of blood volume and is 90% water o    Contains dissolved materials which are being transported: o    proteins (fibrinogen), hormones, nutrients, waste products, gases Erythrocytes: o    Function: > to carry oxygen o    Structure: >  no nucleus, cytoplasm contains…

Cell Reactions and Energy

Cells must perform thousands of different chemical reactions in order to survive.  These reactions are crucial to providing cells with energy. Endergonic reactions: -“energy in” require energy in order to proceed – biological endergonic reactions produce molecules that store energy (ex. Glucose) – Ex. Photosynthesis Exergonic reatctions: – “energy out” release energy – biological exergonic…

Mitosis and the Cell Cycle

Genetic continuity is the transmission of hereditary material through cell division. The Cell Cycle –      cells do not divide continuously–      in cells capable of dividing, the period between cell divisions is called interphase–      cells spend most of their time in interphase because this is the phase where they perform their functions (obtaining energy, synthesizing products,…