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Language: History and Structure

Language: History and Structure Language – a system of symbols and rules for combining these symbols in ways that can produce an almost infinite number of possible messages and meanings Three critical properties of language: Symbolic: Uses sounds, written signs, or gestures to refer to objects, events, ideas, and feelings Displacement – capacity of language…

Memory: Storing & Accessing Information

Memory – processes that allow us to record and later retrieve experiences and information Memory as Information Processing Encoding – getting information into the system by translating into a neural code that your brain processes Storage – retaining information over time Retrieval – the process of accessing information in long term memory Three-Component Model Three…

Learning: Classical Conditioning & Operant Conditioning

Learning – process by which experience produces a relatively enduring change in an organism’s behaviour or capabilities Adapting to the Environment Behaviourists focus on how organisms learn, examining the processes by which the experience influences behaviour Ethology focuses on the functions of behaviour Adaptive significance – how behaviour influences an organism’s chances for survival Fixed…

States of Consciousness

Consciousness – our moment to moment awareness of ourselves and our environment Has various characteristics: Subjective and Private – reality and experience depend on the individual Dynamic – consciousness experiences are ever-changing and a continuous flow of mental activity Self-reflective and Central to Our Sense of Self – mind is aware of its own consciousness…

Sensation and Perception

Sensation – the stimulus-detection process by which our sense organs respond to and translate environmental stimuli into nerve impulses that are sent to the brain Perception – active process of organizing the stimulus input and giving it meaning Sensory Processes Stimulus detection – absolute threshold designated as the lowest intensity at which a stimulus can…

Psychology: The Science of Behaviour

Psychology = The scientific study of behaviour and the factors that influence it. Taking into account Biological, Individual and Environmental factors. Basic and Applied Science Two types of research: Basic research: Knowledge gained purely for its own sake. The goals are to describe how people behave and to identify factors that influence it. Research maybe…

Brain: Imaging, Anatomy, Lateralization

Scores on neuropsychological tests show amount of damage done to person Destruction and Stimulation test: can destroy parts of the brain to see effect or stimulate nerves with electrodes  (Dr. Penfield- famous neuroscientists) – mapped motor and sensory areas Broca’s aphasia: could understand, but not speak Dorsal Stream: action (D.A) Ventral Stream: perception (V.P) Single-…

Brain Structure: Depolarization & Neurotransmitters

Neurons: constructive unit of the nervous system; interconnected like electrical circuits Made up of: Soma (cell body): contains nucleus, keeps nerve cells alive (grey matter) Dendrites: receiving portion of nerve cell- receiving end of cell Axon: sends impulses away from the cell (white matter) Dendrites and axons are all interconnected; vary in shape and size…

Statistics in Psychology: Variance, Deviation

Descriptive Statistics: Summarizes and describes characteristics of a set of scores for a group Frequency Distribution: # of people who received each score Histogram: frequency distribution turned into graph. Measure of central tendency: mean (average), median (middle), mode (most often) Measure of variability: provide info about spread of scores (i.e range) (highest- lowest) least informative…

Psychology Study Methods, Research, Validity

Key scientific attitudes: Curiosity, skepticism, open-mindedness Hindsight: explaining behavior after the fact (problem: multiple conflicting outcomes and explanations for results) Use Scientific Process with variables and factual observations Scientific Process: Formulate a question based on observed events Formulate a tentative explanation for why those event transpired (hypothesis) Conduct research to test it Analyze research and…

Romeo & Juliet: Act I, Scene 5 Analysis

Key players Capulet: Head of household feuding with the Montagues Romeo: Son of Montague Tybalt: Nephew of Lady Capulet Juliet: Daughter of Capulet Nurse: Juliet’s Helper Benvolio: Nephew of Montague, friend of Romeo First Servant/Second Servant Second Capulet Servant Summary of key events In the hallway of Capulet’s house four servingmen clear away the dinner…

Romeo & Juliet Act I, Scene 1 Analysis

Key players Sampson/Gregory: Servants to Capulet Abraham/Balthasar: Servants to Montague Benvolio: Nephew of Montague, Romeo’s friend Tybalt: Nephew of Lady Capulet Capulet: Head of household feuding with Montagues Lady Capulet: Wife of Capulet Prince (Escalus): Prince of Verona Montague: Head of household feuding with Capulets Lady Montague: Wife of Montague Romeo: Son of Montague Summary…

Tools and Science of Archaeology

Archaeologists are basically detectives who attempt to reconstruct past human activities from evidence most of which is buried in the earth.  Archaeology involves experts from many other fields. Even the science of archaeology, commonly divided into prehistoric and historical can be further divided into various fields: paleolithic, Egyptology, classical, industrial, environmental, underwater, salvage, and experimental…