Article last reviewed: 2017 | St. Rosemary Institution © 2010-2018 | Creative Commons 4.0

On the Duty of Civil Disobedience (1849): Henry David Thoreau

Thoreau (1817-1862) was an American naturalist and writer.  This work of his has become the basis of non-violent protest throughout history and the world.  Thoreau believed that nonviolence or passive disobedience was necessary whenever government edict conflicted with higher moral law- the ideal natural law, from which human law was derived. I heartily accept the…

Existentialism & Jean-Paul Sartre: Sartre and Kant on Ethics

Existentialism: a philosophical movement that focuses on individual autonomy and the necessity of making reasoned decisions for oneself. Jean-Paul Sartre, (1905-1980) French author and philosopher Best-known proponent of humanistic existentialism Marxist advocate of political causes French resistance fighter of WWII Winner of the Nobel Prize for literature Sartre was an atheist who believed that human…

Modern Theories of Truth: Correspondence Theory, Coherence Theory, Pragmatism

Correspondence Theory Best known, most widely used conception of truth Maintains there is a relationship (correspondence) between people’s internal beliefs and realities in the external world (truth means agreement between thought and reality) Belief is true if it agrees with fact or coincides with the physical world or objective reality Truth claims should be checked…

Socrates, Plato and Aristotle

Socrates 470-399 B.C,- NEVER wrote anything Gave philosophy its preeminent method- Socratic method or questioning (form of inquiry and debate between individuals with opposing viewpoints based on asking and answering questions to stimulate rational thinking and to illuminate ideas) Believed knowledge does not come from memorizing facts & repeating them True wisdom comes from being…