Ecology: Population Distribution and Abundance

Distribution: Geographic area where individuals of a species occur. Abundance: Number of individuals in a given area. Ecologists try to understand what factors determine the distribution and abundance of species. Populations are dynamic—distribution and abundance can change over time and space. ***Understanding the factors that influence these dynamics helps us manage populations for harvest or…

Life History: Diversity, Reproduction, K vs. R species, Tradeoffs

An organism’s life history is a record of events relating to its growth, development, reproduction, and survival. Life history characteristics include: Age and size at sexual maturity. Amount and timing of reproduction. Survival and mortality rates. Life History Diversity Individuals within a species show variation in life history traits due to genetic variation or environmental…

Coping with Environmental Variation: Temperature and Water

The physical environment influences an organism’s ecological success in two ways: Availability of energy and resources—impacts growth and reproduction. Extreme conditions can exceed tolerance limits and impact survival. Energy supply can influence an organism’s ability to tolerate environmental extremes. The actual geographic distribution of a species is often lower than potential distribution due to other…

Sexual Development in Adults: Singles, Cohabitation, Marriage, Divorce

SEX AND SINGLE PERSON Sexual Development. Individuals continue to develop sexual identity and orientation. Some individuals continue to struggle with their homosexuality or bisexuality. People learn their sexual likes/ dislikes through experience. Some people seek out more sex with more new partners. Two issues about achieving sexual maturity: 1) Become responsible about sex (i.e contraception,…

Child Sexual Development: Infancy, Early Childhood, Adolescence

Adult reporting on childhood sexual experiences often forget; error prone. Interviewing a child about sexual experiences if met with great opposition; computer interviews are used. INFANCY (0-2 YRS) Boy have been shown to have reflex boners during prenatal period and girls have vaginal lubrication after brith. First intimate relationship child has is with mother (i.e…

Sex Psychology: Sexual dysfunction & Sexual Disorders

Sexual dysfunction: problem with sexual response that causes significant psychological distress or interpersonal difficulty. Four types of Sexual Disorders: 1) Desire Disorder: hypoactive sexual desire, sexual aversion 2) Arousal Disorders: erectile disorder female sexual arousal disorder 3) Orgasmic Disorders: rapid ejaculation, male orgasmic disorder, female orgasmic disorder. 4) Sexual pain Disorders: dyspareunia, vaginismus **sexual disorders…

Protestant Reformation in England: Influences & Causes

There were many factors that influenced the Protestant Reformation in England, such as the political climate of Roman Catholic Church corruption and the increasing discontent among both nobles and laymen. But the most important factor was King Henry VIII’s pervasive self-serving attitude which profoundly impacted, and ultimately caused the Reformation of England. Anne Boleyn’s influence…