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Null hypothesis, Alternative hypothesis, P value and Z test

Null hypothesis: is the claim being assessed in a hypothesis. For a claim to be a testable null hypothesis, it must specify a value for some population parameter that can form the basis for assuming a sampling distribution for a test statistic. Alternative hypothesis: The alternative hypothesis proposes what we should conclude if we find…

Earth Sciences Study Guide: Atmospheres

From Figure 4.2, describe the geographic locations where coastal upwelling is important (e.g., “west central and southwestern South America”). Upwelling causes some of the coldest surface temperatures on Earth. The low surface temperatures stabilize the overlying atmosphere, causing cool dry climates (deserts) to dominate the western edge of South America. Upwelling is important where coastlines…

Earth Sciences Study Guide: Atmospheric Structure & Composition

Of what two gases was Earth’s first atmosphere primarily composed? diatomic nitrogen, carbon dioxide What are the percentages of Earth’s three most abundant constant (non-variable) gases in the atmosphere? nitrogen (78.08%), diatomic oxygen (20.95%), argon (0.93%) What are the variable gas within Earth’s atmosphere? water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, hydrogen, nitrous oxide,…