Environmental Values and Ethics

Utilitarian Justification– conservation of nature is important because the environment, ecosystem, habitat, or species provides individuals (aka humans) with direst economic benefits. Ecological Justification– conservation of nature is based on the knowledge that a species, ecological community, ecosystem, or the Earth’s biosphere provides specific function necessary to the persistence of our life. Aesthetic Justification– conservation…

ENTROPY

Entropy, S, is the tendency towards randomness or disorder in a system – an ordered arrangement of particles has a lower entropy/disorder than the same number of particles in random arrangements Entropy becomes more disordered with: 1.) ^ Temperature – more chaotic motion 2.) ^ Volume of gases 3.) change in phys. State A change…

What is Harassment?

Protected groups have the explicit right to freedom from harassment in housing accommodation and employment. The Code defines harassment as “engaging in a course of vexatious [annoying or provoking] comment or conduct which is known or ought reasonably to be known to be unwelcome.” The most important word in the definition is “unwelcome.” We do…

International Law

Customs, rules, and agreements that govern relations between sovereign states.  More recently also includes handling such matters as human rights within the borders of sovereign nations. Is international law real law? Domestic Law Vs. International law No international legislature passing laws – UN closest to such a forum No comprehensive judicial system – International Court…

Human Rights

1948 UN General Assembly adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Outlines basic human rights including: The right to life, liberty and nationality Freedom of opinion, conscience, and religion Right to work Right to an education Right to take part in the nation’s public business 1966 United Nations Convention on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights…

Types of Legal Evidence

Direct Evidence: the testimony of witnesses who actually saw the offence being committed Circumstantial Evidence: indirect evidence; indicates that it is highly probable that the accused is the only one who could have committed the crime Similar Fact Evidence: shows that the accused has committed similar offences in the past Hearsay Evidence: something that someone…

Types of Legal Defenses

Legal Defenses •    Insanity •    Automatism •    Intoxication •    Duress •    Self-Defense •    Alibi •    Necessity •    Mistake of Fact •    Provocation •    Officially induced error •    Entrapment •    Double Jeopardy Insanity •    Accused cannot perform the Mens Rea of the offence or is not fit to stand trial. To Prove Insanity you must: •  …

Aboriginal Rights

Aboriginal Rights: Collective rights rooted in historic cultural traditions and practices, based on ancestral use of the land. Rights as distinct peoples recognized in law and treaties Collective Rights: Rights held through membership to a group.  All members have same rights. Areas of Concern: Self-government Land ownership Control of natural resources The Royal Proclamation, 1763…

Origins of Law

SIGNIFICANT PERSON  OR CONCEPT DEFINITION, OR  IMPORTANCE TWO EXAMPLES HAMMURABI (POSITIVE LAW AS MADE BY A PERSON) Codification Retribution (eye for an eye) Patriarchal All Babylonians Subject to the law King is above the law Very harsh and cruel Son gets hand cut off if strikes father, not mother Doctor gets hand cut off if…