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### What is Viscosity? Application, Flow, Factors

The property that describes a liquid’s thickness or thinness is called viscosity; high viscosity (thick) liquids differ from low-viscosity (thin) ones. You will also use the particle theory to explain some behaviors and properties of fluids—liquids and gases. A fluid is any substance that flows. The particle theory can explain why some substances flow while…

### Common Ion Effect

Different ionic compounds can release the same ions into solution. This ultimately means that different ionic compounds can affect the equilibrium of other ionic compounds. Common ion effect: The solubility of a salt can be reduced by the presence of another salt that has a common ion. Example: if NaCl is dissolved and HCl(aq) is…

### Spontaneity and Thermodynamics

The First Law of Thermodynamics: This is the law of conservation of energy. The total amount of energy in the universe is constant. Energy cannot be created nor destroyed. We have seen that energy can be transferred from a system to its surroundings and vice versa. During these processes no energy is created nor destroyed…

### Solubility Product Constant

For the equilibria between an ionic solid and its dissolved ions, the equilibrium constant is called the solubility product Ksp. Ksp gives us information about the solubility of the compound. The lower Ksp is, the less soluble a compound is. Eg: CuCl2 Ksp=1.7×10-7 at 25°C        NaCl Ksp= 3.8×101 at 25°C      CuS Ksp=6.0×10-37 at 25°C Solubility:…

### The Reaction Quotient

The reaction quotient is an equation that allows us to determine whether a system is at equilibrium or not. The equation is the same as the equilibrium law except the concentrations are initial concentrations instead of equilibrium concentrations. If Q = K the system is at equilibrium If Q > K, the system will shift…

### The Equilibrium Constant (K)

Where K is the equilibrium constant, A,B,C,D are the equilibrium concentrations of aqueous/gaseous compounds, a,b,c,d are the coefficients in the balanced chemical equation. The equilibrium constant is related to the rate constants of the forward and reverse reactions. It is always the same for a given reaction at a given temperature. Since k changes with…

### Mental & Physical Development over Lifespan

Developmental psychology examines changes in biological, physical, psychological, and behavioural processes over age Four issues guide developmental research: Nature and nurture – To what extent is our development the product of heredity (nature) or the product of the environment (nurture)? How do they interact? Critical and sensitive periods – Are some experiences especially important at…

### What is Personality? How is it form?

Personality – the distinctive and relatively enduring ways of thinking, feeling, and acting that characterize a person’s responses to life situations Aspects of personality have three characteristics: Seen as components of identity that distinguish that person from other people Behaviours viewed as being caused primarily by internal rather than environmental factors Behaviours seem to fit…

### Psychological Disorders

Historical Perspectives on Psychological Disorders The Demonological View Abnormal behaviour was claimed to be work of the devil Procedure called trephination drilled hole in skull to release evil spirits Early Biological Views Hippocrates suggested that mental illnesses are diseases just like physical disorders Believed that site of illness was the brain Biological emphasis increased after…

### Types of Treatment of Psychological Disorders

Mental health professionals fall into several categories: Counseling and clinical psychologists – typically hold a Ph.D. or Psy.D. Psychiatrists – medical doctors who specialize in psychotherapy and biomedical treatments Therapist, counselor, psychotherapist, hypnotist are NOT protected terms APA membership: 29% eclectic (combined), 21% psychodynamic, 16% behavioural, 13% cognitive, 12% humanistic, 9% other Psychodynamic Therapies Psychoanalysis…

### Water Balance: ADH, Angiotensin, Aldosterone

The body adjusts to: Increased water intake by increasing urine output Decreased water intake or increased exercise by decreasing urine output To do this your body’s nervous system has to communicate with the endocrine system Water balance is regulated by antidiuretic hormone (ADH) ADH regulates the osmotic pressure of body fluids by causing the kidneys…

### Body Systems: Urine Formation

Occurs in Three Stages: Glomerular Filtration – Movement of fluids from the blood INTO the Bowman’s capsule Reabsorption – Transfer of essential solutes and water from the nephron tubules BACK into the blood Secretion – Movement of materials from the blood into the nephron Filtration Blood moves from the: AORTA to the RENAL ARTERY to…

### Service Competition

some businesses are set up solely to perform specific services for customers Other businesses offer value- added services, which are activities performed to support the sale of a product or other service Convenience o   Means making some activity easier or more comfortable, and is a major reason why people shop on the internet o   Customers…

### Competition in a Free Market

–          North Americans live in a free market society –          In a free market, businesses can make a profit, which means that successful business people can keep some of the money that they make –          Profit drives business; the more successful a business becomes, the more profit the owner keeps –          Profits may be reinvested…

businesses look for advantages over their competition Some of these advantages are temporary, part of the continual back- and forth activity that occurs among competitors i.e. Pepsi and Coke Sustainable Competitive Advantages o   Sustainable competitive advantages are methods by which a business holds on to its customers, in spite of the competition o   Developing a…

### Customer Relationship Management

Marketers use customer relationship management tools to create marketing programs that satisfy customers Customer relationship management involves three stages: customer acquistion, customer retention, and customer reacquisition Customer relationship management Overall process of building and maintaining profitable customer relationships by delivering superior customer value and satisfaction Information technology and database systems Customer contact brands or companies…

### Functionalism, Systems Theory, Symbolic Interactionism, Social Exchange Theory

Functionalism: -The sociological theory that ties to explain how a society is organized to perform functions effectively. This theory focuses on how the structures function within society. It is the oldest sociological theory and is also used by anthropologists. – These structures, for example: the law, political system, and family; called institutions. – assumes that…

### Studies of the Family: Psychological, anthropological, sociological

ANTHROPOLOGICAL: The study of human behavior in societies, therefore it is the study of culture, the arts beliefs habits institutions and other endeavours that are characteristic of a specific community, society, or nation. – studies highlight the diversity of behaviors that fulfill the functional requisites of society. – ethnocentrism: the tendency to evaluate behavior from…

### Industrial Revolution’s Impacts on the Family

– large changes in the family system, especially in the status and roles of women and children. – economy shifted from one based on agriculture and commerce to one based on factory production in towns and cities. This caused work to become something that was done outside the home to earn a wage to provide…

### Functions of the Family

1. Responsible for the addition of new members through reproduction. Society must maintain a stable population in order to survive. Population growth provides a competitive advantage that usually enables a society to become wealthier. 2. Provide physical care for their members, including adults, children, and dependent elderly. When families are unable to care for their…